What is the term for metabolic pathways that relax stored power by breaking down complex molecules?

A) anabolic pathways

B) catabolic pathways

C) fermentation pathways

D) thermodynamic pathways

E) bioenergetic pathways


The molecule that features as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction

A) gains electrons and gains potential energy.

You are watching: Which of the following normally occurs regardless of whether or not oxygen (o2) is present?

B) loser electrons and loses potential energy.

C) profit electrons and loses potential energy.

D) loses electrons and gains potential energy.

E) neither gains nor loses electrons, but gains or loser potential energy.


When electrons relocate closer to a an ext electronegative atom, what happens?

A) The more electronegative atom is reduced, and also energy is released.

B) The more electronegative atom is reduced, and also energy is consumed.

C) The an ext electronegative atom is oxidized, and energy is consumed.

D) The more electronegative atom is oxidized, and energy is released.

E) The an ext electronegative atom is reduced, and entropy decreases.


Why walk the oxidation of necessary compounds by molecule oxygen to create CO2 and water release complimentary energy?

A) The covalent bonds in essential molecules and also molecular oxygen have more kinetic power than the covalent binding in water and carbon dioxide.

B) Electrons room being moved from atom that have actually a reduced affinity for electrons (such as C) come atoms v a greater affinity because that electrons (such as O).

C) The oxidation of necessary compounds can be provided to make ATP.

D) The electrons have a higher potential energy when linked with water and CO2 보다 they perform in necessary compounds.

E) The covalent bond in O2 is unstable and easily broken by electron from organic molecules.


Electrons are being moved from atoms that have actually a lower affinity because that electrons (such as C) come atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O)

Which that the following statements describes the results of this reaction?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

A) C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.

B) O2 is oxidized and also H2O is reduced.

C) CO2 is reduced and O2 is oxidized.

D) C6H12O6 is reduced and also CO2 is oxidized.

E) O2 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.


C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is reduced.

When a glucose molecule loser a hydrogen atom as the an outcome of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes

A) hydrolyzed.

B) hydrogenated.

C) oxidized.

D) reduced.

E) one oxidizing agent.


Oxidized 

When a molecule the NAD+ (nicotinamide adenin dinucleotide) benefit a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule becomes

A) dehydrogenated.

B) oxidized.

C) reduced.

D) redoxed.

E) hydrolyzed.


Reduced 

Which the the adhering to statements explains NAD+?

A) NAD+ is decreased to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and also the citric acid cycle.

B) NAD+ has much more chemical power than NADH.

C) NAD+ is oxidized through the activity of hydrogenases.

D) NAD+ can donate electrons for usage in oxidative phosphorylation.

E) In the lack of NAD+, glycolysis deserve to still function.


NAD+ is diminished to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and also the citric acid cycle

Where walk glycolysis take location in eukaryotic bio cells?

A) mitochondrial matrix

B) mitochondrial external membrane

C) mitochondrial inside membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) cytosol


Cytosol

The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

A) substrate-level phosphorylation.

B) electron transport.

C) photophosphorylation.

D) chemiosmosis.

E) oxidation the NADH come NAD+.


substrate-level phophorylation 

The oxygen consumed throughout cellular respiration is affiliated directly in which procedure or event?

A) glycolysis

B) accepting electron at the finish of the electron transport chain

C) the citric mountain cycle

D) the oxidation the pyruvate come acetyl CoA

E) the phosphorylation that ADP to kind ATP


Accepting electrons at the finish of the electron deliver chain 

Which procedure in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is existing or absent?

A) electron transport

B) glycolysis

C) the citric acid cycle

D) oxidative phosphorylation

E) chemiosmosis


Glycolysis 

An electron loses potential power when it

A) shifts to a much less electronegative atom.

B) move to a much more electronegative atom.

C) rises its kinetic energy.

D) rises its activity as an oxidizing agent.

E) moves further away native the cell nucleus of the atom.


Shifts to a more electronegative atom 

Why room carbohydrates and also fats taken into consideration high power foods?

A) They have actually a the majority of oxygen atoms.

B) They have no nitrogen in their makeup.

C) They can have really long carbon skeletons.

D) They have a lot of electrons linked with hydrogen.

E) castle are easily reduced.


They have actually a the majority of electrons associated with hydrogen 

Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP created by the reactions of glycolysis?

A) 0%

B) 2%

C) 10%

D) 38%

E) 100%


100%

During glycolysis, as soon as each molecule the glucose is catabolized to two molecules the pyruvate, many of the potential energy consisted of in glucose is

A) transferred to ADP, forming ATP.

B) transferred directly to ATP.

C) kept in the 2 pyruvates.

D) save on computer in the NADH produced.

E) offered to phosphorylate fructose to type fructose 6-phosphate
Retained in the two pyruvates 

In addition to ATP, what are the end assets of glycolysis?

A) CO2 and also H2O

B) CO2 and pyruvate

C) NADH and also pyruvate

D) CO2 and also NADH

E) H2O, FADH2, and also citrate


NADH and also pyruvate 

The cost-free energy for the oxidation that glucose come CO2 and water is -686 kcal/mol and the free energy for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mol. Why are just two molecules of NADH formed during glycolysis when it shows up that as countless as a dozen can be formed?

A) many of the free energy available from the oxidation of glucose is offered in the production of ATP in glycolysis.

B) Glycolysis is a very inefficient reaction, with lot of the energy of glucose released as heat.

C) many of the free energy obtainable from the oxidation of glucose remains in pyruvate, among the assets of glycolysis.

D) over there is no CO2 or water created as assets of glycolysis.

E) Glycolysis consists of countless enzymatic reactions, every of which extracts some energy from the glucose molecule.


Most that the free energy obtainable from the oxidation that glucose stays in pyruvate, one of the assets of glycolysis 

Starting through one molecule of glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis are

A) 2 NAD+, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.

B) 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP.

C) 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, and 4 ATP.

D) 6 CO2, 2 ATP, and also 2 pyruvate.

E) 6 CO2, 30 ATP, and 2 pyruvate.


2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP

In glycolysis, for each molecule the glucose oxidized to pyruvate

A) 2 molecules of ATP room used and also two molecules of ATP room produced.

B) 2 molecules of ATP room used and four molecule of ATP space produced.

C) 4 molecules that ATP space used and two molecules of ATP room produced.

D) 2 molecules of ATP room used and six molecules of ATP space produced.

E) six molecules that ATP are used and also six molecules of ATP are produced.


Two molecules of ATP room used and also four molecules of ATP are produced 

A molecule that is phosphorylated

A) has been reduced as a result of a oxidization reaction including the loss of an not natural phosphate.

B) has actually a diminished chemical reactivity; it is less likely to provide energy for cellular work.

C) has been oxidized as a result of a oxidation reaction involving the get of an not natural phosphate.

D) has an enhanced chemical potential energy; that is primed to execute cellular work.

E) has less energy than before its phosphorylation and therefore less energy for moving work.


Has an raised chemical potential energy; it is primed to do cellular work

Which kind of metabolic poison would certainly most straight interfere v glycolysis?

A) one agent the reacts v oxygen and depletes its concentration in the cell

B) an certified dealer that binding to pyruvate and also inactivates it

C) an certified dealer that very closely mimics the structure of glucose yet is not metabolized

D) one agent the reacts v NADH and also oxidizes it to NAD+

E) one agent that blocks the i of electrons along the electron transfer chain


An certified dealer that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized 

Why is glycolysis described as having actually an invest phase and a payoff phase?

A) that both splits molecules and assembles molecules.

B) that attaches and detaches phosphate groups.

C) It offers glucose and generates pyruvate.

D) It shifts molecules native cytosol come mitochondrion.

E) It supplies stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.


It uses stored ATP and then develops a net boost in ATP

The move of pyruvate into mitochondria depends on the proton-motive force throughout the inner mitochondrial membrane. Just how does pyruvate enter the mitochondrion?

A) active transport

B) diffusion

C) helped with diffusion

D) through a channel

E) with a pore


Active transport 

Which of the complying with intermediary metabolites beginning the citric mountain cycle and also is formed, in part, by the removed of a carbon (CO2) indigenous one molecule the pyruvate?

A) lactate

B) glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate

C) oxaloacetate

D) acetyl CoA

E) citrate


Acetyl CoA

During moving respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in i beg your pardon location?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial outer membrane

C) mitochondrial within membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Mitochondrial Matrix 

How countless carbon atoms space fed right into the citric acid cycle as a an outcome of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?

A) two

B) four

C) six

D) eight

E) ten


Two 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the adhering to stages of to move respiration?

A) glycolysis and also the oxidation that pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B) oxidation the pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

C) the citric mountain cycle and also oxidative phosphorylation

D) oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation

E) fermentation and also glycolysis


Oxidation of pyruvate come acetyl CoA and also the citric mountain cycle 

A young animal has never had much energy. That is lugged to a vet for assist and is sent to the animal hospital for part tests. There they find his mitochondria can use just fatty acids and amino acids because that respiration, and also his cell produce an ext lactate 보다 normal. That the following, i beg your pardon is the finest explanation that his condition?

A) His mitochondria lack the deliver protein the moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane.

B) His cell cannot move NADH native glycolysis into the mitochondria.

C) His cell contain something the inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria.

D) His cells lack the enzyme in glycolysis that creates pyruvate.

E) His cells have a defective electron transport chain, for this reason glucose goes come lactate instead of to acetyl CoA.


His mitochondria lack the transport protein the moves pyruvate throughout the outer mitochondrial membrane 

During aerobic respiration, electrons take trip downhill in i m sorry sequence?

A) food → citric acid cycle → ATP → NAD+

B) food → NADH → electron deliver chain → oxygen

C) glucose → pyruvate → ATP → oxygen

D) glucose → ATP → electron carry chain → NADH

E) food → glycolysis → citric acid cycle → NADH → ATP


food → NADH → electron transfer chain → oxygen

What portion of the carbon dioxide exhaled by pets is generated by the reaction of the citric acid cycle, if glucose is the sole energy source?

A) 1/6

B) 1/3

C) 1/2

D) 2/3

E) 100/100


2/3

Where room the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial outer membrane

C) mitochondrial inside membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Mitochondrial inner membrane 

In moving respiration, the power for most ATP synthesis is supplied by

A) high energy phosphate binding in necessary molecules.

B) a proton gradient throughout a membrane.

C) converting oxygen to ATP.

D) transferring electrons native organic molecules to pyruvate.

E) generating carbon dioxide and oxygen in the electron deliver chain.


A proton gradient throughout a membrane 

During aerobic respiration, which of the following straight donates electron to the electron deliver chain in ~ the lowest power level?

A) NAD+

B) NADH

C) ATP

D) ADP + i

E) FADH2


FADH2

The primary duty of oxygen in to move respiration is to

A) yield power in the type of ATP as it is passed down the respiratory tract chain.

B) act as an acceptor because that electrons and hydrogen, creating water.

C) incorporate with carbon, developing CO2.

D) combine with lactate, creating pyruvate.

E) catalyze the reactions of glycolysis.


Act together an acceptor because that electrons and also hydrogen, developing water. 

Inside an active mitochondrion, many electrons follow which pathway?

A) glycolysis → NADH → oxidative phosphorylation → ATP → oxygen

B) citric acid cycle → FADH2 → electron transport chain → ATP

C) electron transfer chain → citric mountain cycle → ATP → oxygen

D) pyruvate → citric mountain cycle → ATP → NADH → oxygen

E) citric mountain cycle → NADH → electron carry chain → oxygen


citric acid cycle → NADH → electron deliver chain → oxygen

During aerobic respiration, H2O is formed. Whereby does the oxygen atom for the formation of the water come from?

A) carbon dioxide (CO2)

B) glucose (C6H12O6)

C) molecule oxygen (O2)

D) pyruvate (C3H3O3-)

E) lactate (C3H5O3-)


Molecular Oxygen (O2)

In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of power that is provided to transform ADP + ns to ATP?

A) power released together electrons flow through the electron move system

B) energy released from substrate-level phosphorylation

C) energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase, versus the electrochemical gradient

D) energy released from activity of protons through ATP synthase, under the electrochemical gradient

E) No external source of energy is required because the reaction is exergonic.


energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase, under the electrochemical gradient

Energy exit by the electron move chain is offered to pump H+ into which ar in eukaryotic cells?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial outer membrane

C) mitochondrial inside membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Mitochondrial intermembrane space

The direct energy resource that cd driver ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic bio cells is

A) oxidation that glucose to CO2 and also water.

B) the thermodynamically favorable flow of electrons from NADH come the mitochondrial electron move carriers.

C) the last transfer of electron to oxygen.

D) the proton-motive force throughout the within mitochondrial membrane.

E) the thermodynamically favorable transport of phosphate indigenous glycolysis and the citric mountain cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.


The proton-motive force across the within mitochondrial membrane 

When hydrogen ions room pumped indigenous the mitochondrial matrix across the inside membrane and also into the intermembrane space, the result is the

A) formation of ATP.

B) reduction of NAD+.

C) reconstruction of the Na+/K+ balance across the membrane.

D) development of a proton-motive force.

E) lowering of pH in the mitochondrial matrix.


Creation of a proton-motive force 

Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?

A) cytosol

B) electron deliver chain

C) external membrane

D) inner membrane

E) mitochondrial matrix


Inner Membrane 

It is possible to prepare vesicles from sections of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Which one of the following processes can still be carried on through this isolated within membrane?

A) the citric mountain cycle

B) oxidative phosphorylation

C) glycolysis and also fermentation

D) reduction of NAD+

E) both the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation


Oxidative phosphorylation 

How many oxygen molecule (O2) are compelled each time a molecule the glucose (C6H12O6) is fully oxidized to carbon dioxide and also water via aerobic respiration,?

A) 1

B) 3

C) 6

D) 12

E) 30


6

Which that the following produces the many ATP when glucose (C6H12O6) is totally oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water?

A) glycolysis

B) fermentation

C) oxidation of pyruvate come acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)


Oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)

Approximately how plenty of molecules the ATP are created from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic cellular respiration?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 15

D) 30-32

E) 60-64


60-64

The synthetic of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, utilizing the energy released by activity of protons throughout the membrane under their electrochemical gradient, is an example of

A) energetic transport.

B) one endergonic reaction coupled to one exergonic reaction.

C) a reaction through a optimistic ΔG .

D) osmosis.

E) allosteric regulation.


An endergonic reaction combination to one exergonic reaction 

Chemiosmotic ATP synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation) wake up in

A) all cells, however only in the visibility of oxygen.

B) only eukaryotic cells, in the visibility of oxygen.

C) just in mitochondria, using either oxygen or various other electron acceptors.

D) all respiring cells, both prokaryotic and also eukaryotic, utilizing either oxygen or other electron acceptors.

E) all cells, in the lack of respiration.


All respiring cells, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, making use of either oxygen or other electron acceptors 

If a cell is able to synthesize 30 ATP molecules for each molecule the glucose totally oxidized by carbon dioxide and water, how many ATP molecules deserve to the cell synthesize for each molecule of pyruvate oxidized to carbon dioxide and water?

A) 0

B) 1

C) 12

D) 14

E) 15


12

What is proton-motive force?

A) the pressure required to remove an electron indigenous hydrogen

B) the pressure exerted ~ above a proton by a transmembrane proton concentration gradient

C) the force that moves hydrogen right into the intermembrane space

D) the force that moves hydrogen right into the mitochondrion

E) the force that move hydrogen come NAD+


The force exerted ~ above a proton by a transmembrane proton concentration gradient 

In liver cells, the inside mitochondrial membranes are around five times the area the the outer mitochondrial membranes. What purpose need to this serve?

A) It allows for an raised rate that glycolysis.

B) It enables for an raised rate of the citric mountain cycle.

C) It increases the surface for oxidative phosphorylation.

D) It boosts the surface ar for substrate-level phosphorylation.

E) It enables the liver cabinet to have actually fewer mitochondria.


It increases the surface ar for oxidative phosphorylation 

Brown fat cells create a protein called thermogenin in their mitochondrial inside membrane. Thermogenin is a channel for helped with transport that protons across the membrane. What will take place in the brown fat cells as soon as they develop thermogenin?

A) ATP synthesis and heat generation will both increase.

B) ATP synthesis will certainly increase, and also heat generation will certainly decrease.

C) ATP synthesis will certainly decrease, and heat generation will increase.

D) ATP synthesis and heat generation will both decrease.

E) ATP synthesis and heat generation will continue to be the same.


ATO synthesis will certainly decrease, and also heat generation will increase 

In a mitochondrion, if the matrix ATP concentration is high, and the intermembrane room proton concentration is too low come generate sufficient proton-motive force, then

A) ATP synthase will increase the rate of ATP synthesis.

B) ATP synthase will protect against working.

C) ATP synthase will hydrolyze ATP and pump protons right into the intermembrane space.

D) ATP synthase will certainly hydrolyze ATP and pump protons right into the matrix.


ATP synthase will certainly hydrolyze ATO and pump protons right into the intermembrane space 

In prokaryotes, the respiratory electron carry chain is located

A) in the mitochondrial inner membrane.

B) in the mitochondrial external membrane.

C) in the plasma membrane.

D) in the cytoplasm.

E) in the bacterial external membrane.


In the plasma membrane 

Which catabolic procedures may have actually been supplied by cells on old Earth before complimentary oxygen ended up being available?

A) glycolysis and fermentation only

B) glycolysis and the citric acid cycle only

C) glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and also the citric mountain cycle

D) oxidative phosphorylation only

E) glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric mountain cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, making use of an electron acceptor other than oxygen


Glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and also oxidative phosphorylation, using an electron acceptor various other than oxygen

Which of the following normally occurs regardless of whether or no oxygen (O2) is present?

A) glycolysis

B) fermentation

C) oxidation of pyruvate come acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)


Glycolysis 

Which the the following occurs in the cytosol the a eukaryotic cell?

A) glycolysis and fermentation

B) fermentation and chemiosmosis

C) oxidation that pyruvate come acetyl CoA

D) citric mountain cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation


Glycolysis and fermentation 

Which metabolic pathway is typical to both cellular respiration and also fermentation?

A) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B) the citric acid cycle

C) oxidative phosphorylation

D) glycolysis

E) chemiosmosis


Glycolysis 

The ATP made throughout fermentation is generated by which of the following?

A) the electron transport chain

B) substrate-level phosphorylation

C) chemiosmosis

D) oxidative phosphorylation

E) aerobic respiration


Substrate-level phosphorylation 

In the lack of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, leading to the production of

A) ATP, CO2, and also ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

B) ATP, CO2, and lactate.

C) ATP, NADH, and pyruvate.

D) ATP, pyruvate, and also oxygen.

E) ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA.


ATP, CO2, and also ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is regenerated native NADH by

A) reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

B) oxidation the pyruvate to acetyl CoA.

C) reduction of pyruvate to type lactate.

D) oxidation the ethanol come acetyl CoA.

E) palliation of ethanol to pyruvate.


Reduction the acetaldehyde come ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to

A) alleviate NAD+ come NADH.

B) mitigate FAD+ come FADH2.

C) oxidation NADH to NAD+.

D) reduce FADH2 come FAD+.

E) do none of the above.


Oxidize NADH to NAD+

An organism is found that thrives both in the presence and lack of oxygen in the air. Curiously, the intake of sugar increases as oxygen is gotten rid of from the organism"s environment, also though the organism does not obtain much weight. This organism

A) should use a molecule other than oxygen to expropriate electrons native the electron move chain.

B) is a common eukaryotic organism.

C) is photosynthetic.

D) is one anaerobic organism.

E) is a facultative anaerobe.


Is a facultative anaerobe 

Which statement finest supports the theory that glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway the originated prior to the critical universal usual ancestor of life ~ above Earth?

A) Glycolysis is widespread and is discovered in the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and also Eukarya.

B) Glycolysis neither uses nor requirements O2.

C) Glycolysis is discovered in all eukaryotic bio cells.

D) The enzymes of glycolysis are discovered in the cytosol fairly than in a membrane-enclosed organelle.

E) ancient prokaryotic cells, the many primitive of cells, made substantial use of glycolysis long before oxygen was current in Earth"s atmosphere.


Glycolysis is widespread and is found in the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and also Eukarya 

Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have actually evolved?

A) the produces much less ATP than does oxidative phosphorylation.

B) the does no involve organelles or committed structures, walk not call for oxygen, and also is current in many organisms.

C) it is discovered in prokaryotic cells yet not in eukaryotic bio cells.

D) It counts on chemiosmosis, i beg your pardon is a metabolic mechanism present only in the an initial cells" prokaryotic cells.

E) It calls for the presence of membrane-enclosed cell organelles uncovered only in eukaryotic cells.


It does not involve oribelles or specialized structures, does not need oxygen, and is present in many organisms 

When an individual is exercising heavily and also when the muscle i do not care oxygen-deprived, muscle cells convert pyruvate to lactate. What wake up to the lactate in skeleton muscle cells?

A) the is convert to NAD+.

B) that produces CO2 and also water.

C) that is required to the liver and also converted back to pyruvate.

D) the reduces FADH2 come FAD+.

E) it is converted to alcohol.


It is required to the liver and converted earlier to pyruvate 

When skeleton muscle cells room oxygen-deprived, the heart still pumps. What should the love muscle cells have the ability to do?

A) derive sufficient power from fermentation

B) continue aerobic metabolism as soon as skeletal muscle cannot

C) transform lactate come pyruvate again

D) eliminate lactate from the blood

E) remove oxygen from lactate


Continue aerobic metabolism when skeletal muscle cannot 

When bones muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they come to be fatigued and painful. This is now known to be led to by

A) buildup the pyruvate.

B) buildup of lactate.

C) increase in salt ions.

D) boost in potassium ions.

E) increase in ethanol.


Buildup of lactate 

A mutation in yeast renders it can not to transform pyruvate come ethanol. Just how will this mutation impact these yeast cells?

A) The mutant yeast will be can not to thrive anaerobically.

B) The mutant yeast will thrive anaerobically only when offered glucose.

C) The mutant yeast will be can not to metabolize glucose.

D) The mutant yeast will certainly die due to the fact that they cannot regenerate NAD+ from NAD.

E) The mutant yeast will certainly metabolize only fatty acids.


The mutant yeast will certainly be can not to grow anaerobically 

You have a friend who lost 7 kg (about 15 pounds) of fat ~ above a regimen of strict diet and also exercise. Just how did the fat leaving her body?

A) It to be released together CO2 and also H2O.

B) It to be converted to heat and then released.

C) It was converted come ATP, i beg your pardon weighs much less than fat.

D) that was damaged down come amino acids and also eliminated native the body.

E) It was converted to urine and also eliminated indigenous the body.


It was released together CO2 and also H2O

Phosphofructokinase is an important control enzyme in the regulation of to move respiration. Which of the following statements correctly describes phosphofructokinase activity?

A) that is inhibited through AMP.

B) that is triggered by ATP.

C) the is caused by citrate, an intermediate of the citric acid cycle.

D) it catalyzes the conversion of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate, an early step that glycolysis.

E) it is one allosteric enzyme.


It is an allosteric enzyme 

Phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme the catalyzes the counter of fructose 6-phosphate to furustos 1,6-bisphosphate, an early step the glycolysis. In the presence of oxygen, an increase in the amount of ATP in a cell would be meant to

A) inhibit the enzyme and thus slow-moving the rates of glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

B) activate the enzyme and thus sluggish the prices of glycolysis and also the citric mountain cycle.

C) inhibit the enzyme and thus boost the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

D) activate the enzyme and increase the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

E) inhibit the enzyme and thus boost the rate of glycolysis and also the concentration of citrate.


Inhibit the enzyme and thus slow the prices of glycolysis and the citric mountain cycle 

Even despite plants lug on photosynthesis, tree cells still usage their mitochondria because that oxidation of pyruvate. When and where will this occur?

A) in photosynthetic cells in the light, while photosynthesis wake up concurrently

B) in nonphotosynthesizing cells only

C) in cell that are storing glucose only

D) in every cells all the time

E) in photosynthesizing cell in the light and in other tissues in the dark


In every cells all the time 

In vertebrate animals, brown fat tissue"s color is due to abundant blood vessels and capillaries. White fat tissue, on the other hand, is committed for fat storage and contains relatively couple of blood vessels or capillaries. Brown fat cells have a devoted protein the dissipates the proton-motive force across the mitochondrial membranes. I beg your pardon of the following might be the duty of the brown fat tissue?

A) to boost the price of oxidative phosphorylation from its couple of mitochondria

B) to allow the animals to control their metabolic rate as soon as it is specifically hot

C) to rise the manufacturing of ATP

D) to permit other membrane of the cabinet to carry out mitochondrial functions

E) to control temperature by converting many of the power from NADH oxidation to heat


To control temperature by converting most of the energy from NADH oxidation to warmth

What is the function of beta oxidation in respiration?

A) oxidation of glucose

B) oxidation the pyruvate

C) feedback regulation

D) regulate of ATP accumulation

E) break down of fatty acids


Breakdown of fatty acids 

Where execute the catabolic products of fatty acid break down enter right into the citric mountain cycle?

A) pyruvate

B) malate or fumarate

C) acetyl CoA

D) α-ketoglutarate

E) succinyl CoA


Acetyl CoA

What carbon sources deserve to yeast cells metabolize to make ATP indigenous ADP under anaerobic conditions?

A) glucose

B) ethanol

C) pyruvate

D) lactic acid

E) either ethanol or lactic acid


Glucose 

High level of citric acid inhibit the enzyme phosphofructokinase, a an essential enzyme in glycolysis. Citric acid binds to the enzyme at a various location native the energetic site. This is an example of

A) competitive inhibition.

B) allosteric regulation.

C) the specificity of enzymes for your substrates.

D) an enzyme request a cofactor.

E) confident feedback regulation.


Allosteric regulation 

During intense exercise, together skeletal muscle cells get in anaerobiosis, the human body will rise its catabolism of

A) fats only.

B) carbohydrate only.

C) proteins only.

D) fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.

E) fats and also proteins only.

See more: " Gunsmoke Stranger In Town (Tv Episode 1967), Gunsmoke/Stranger In Town


Carbohydrates only 

Yeast cell that have actually defective mitochondria incapable of respiration will be able to grow by catabolizing i m sorry of the adhering to carbon sources for energy?

A) glucose

B) proteins

C) fatty acids

D) glucose, proteins, and also fatty acids

E) together yeast cells will not be qualified of catabolizing any kind of food molecules, and will thus die.


Glucose 

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