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Introduction

Anne R. Pebley

Many north Americans would certainly be surprised to find out that no Panama nor Belize space considered main American countries, in the traditional sense, despite their obvious geographic ar in the region (see number 1). The reasons provide tantalizing clues to the complicated social and political background of the region, in its many incarnations. Since the Federation of main America asserted its self-reliance from Mexico (itself freshly independent native Spain) \"Central America\" has referred solely to Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and also Costa Rica. The Federation lasted just until 1839, yet the desire for some kind of economic and also political integration amongst these five nations has actually remained strong. The regions which now comprise these nations (plus Belize) re-publishing an also longer collective background as component of the Audiencia that Guatemala during the three century of Spanish colonial rule, and also in the instance of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras, many hundreds of years of negotiation by the Maya and related cultures in the preconquest period.

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Figure 1. Map of central American Isthmus


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Despite your location, Panama and Belize have separate histories from other countries in the region and have only recently begun to be combined economically and socially. At the time of self-reliance in 1821, Panama made decision union with Colombia and also subsequently ended up being independent from Colombia in just 1903, under the defense of the U.S. Marine (Pérez-Brignoli, 1989). Belize remained a British nest until 1981 and also only in the past couple of years has Guatemala given up its claims to Belizean territory.

In this volume, us refer collectively to every seven countries located in the Isthmus as main America, return the title of the book is much more precise to protect against confusion.

For the most part, phibìc Americans\" views of main America are refracted v the restrictive lens of current U.S. International policy: the controversial Panama Canal Treaty, the Sandinista triumph in Nicaragua, guerrilla motions in Guatemala, the El Salvadorian civil war, the Iran-Contra Scandal associated with the U.S. Support for Contras in Nicaragua, the capture and also trial that Manuel Noriega, and revelations around U.S. Support for violent Guatemala military regimes. Over there is no doubt that the U.S. And also U.S. Citizens have played a disproportionately big (and frequently malign) role in main American history. Historical examples include the take-over the Nicaragua by the Tennessee probe William walker in 1855, the structure of the Panama Canal, the political activity of the united Fruit agency in number of countries, the CIA-organized fall of the free Arbenz routine in Guatemala in 1954, and many, many others. Terrific accounts the this background are noted by Pérez-Brignoli (1989) and also LeFeber (1993).

As the papers in this volume make clear, however, the central American suffer is crucial for north Americans and others come understand, for reasons unrelated to standard U.S. International policy interests. Native a demography perspective, main American nations have proficient the decimation of aboriginal populations and civilizations during and also after the Spanish conquest, high fertility rates and also dramatic fertility declines, rapid mortality declines and also stubbornly high mortality rates, big intra-regional and international migrate streams, and major refugee movements. Contrasts in between neighboring nations in the region are often big and provide important lessons around the macrolevel as well as microlevel factors of demography behavior. For example, in the early on 1960s, Costa Rica and Nicaragua both had really high fertility prices (an mean of around 7 youngsters per woman) however by the early 1990s, the Costa Rican fertility rate had fallen come 3, a level near to plenty of industrialized countries. Nicaragua competent a substantially much less precipitous fertility decline; through the beforehand 1990s, its complete fertility price was around 5 children per woman. Chapters through Guzmán, Hermalin et al., CELADE, and also others in this volume display that the factors behind these far-ranging differences in demographic suffer are facility and reward careful study.

Central Americans\" suffer with country and social identity also provides substantial food for thought for scholars and also others came to with the an interpretation of ethnicity and the process of cultural change. In spite of the ravages that the conquest and post-conquest eras, the indigenous population of central America, and particularly in Guatemala and also on the Atlantic coastline of Nicaragua, has actually survived the past 400 years. In fact, high native fertility prices in Guatemala merged with gradual improvements in wellness status and a reduction in political violence method the substantial bulk of Guatemalans in the 21st century are most likely to be native (instead the the present 50% the the population). However with decreased repression and bulk rather than minority status, the indigenous population may face a brand-new set of difficulties related to keeping its own distinct ethnicity (Rohter, 1997). There are likewise several other significant ethnic groups in central America consisting of mestizos, creoles, garifuna, and those of european origin. Because of the unique history of each group, the an option between integration or retention of social distinctiveness is an essential issue for each group. Several chapters in this volume provide a large view of the background and present circumstances of various ethnic groups.

Cultural identity is likewise under risk in central America due to the fact that of the growing import of social influences from abroad, specifically from the united States. While U.S. Citizens frequently fret around changes in U.S. Society due to immigrant from Latin America, social exchange is a two way street. In fact, to this observer, the affect of the phibìc American society appears far much more pervasive in central America 보다 the influence of Latin American society in the U.S. The accessibility of cable tv (including CNN, the Cartoon Network, and local U.S. Channels), the ease of waiting travel, and the dimension of migrants streams between main America and also the U.S. Have substantially increased the adoption of phibìc American ideas and values. The cultivation Protestant evangelical movement and the Mormon Church which have both made major inroads in traditionally Catholic main American countries, have actually only accelerated the process of social change.

During the previous several decades, central American nations have also grappled through the facility issues that promoting financial growth and also reducing poverty while staying clear of environmental destruction. A background of extreme social stratification in many central American countries has created big gaps in life standards in between the bulk of the populace and the rich elites. However, fast social and economic adjust is underway in all nations in the region. Transforms include rapidly increasing ties to an international markets, growth in industrial and also formal sector employment, decreasing reliance on subsistence and also plantation agriculture, and the advancement of a advertising capitalist course which is not carefully tied to timeless landed elites.

High populace densities, poor cultivation methods, poverty, and huge inequalities in land distribution have led to overexploitation in agricultural land in many central American countries. Favor Brazil, main America likewise contains several of the last remaining major tropical rainforest areas in the west Hemisphere. Yet these forests are, in virtually all cases, under siege from loggers, agribusiness concerns, and poor farmer trying to make a living. ~ above the other hand, Costa Rica has collection aside big areas as nationwide parks and also reserves and pioneered eco-tourism and other novel environmental strategies, in an attempt to keep at least a component of it\"s natural environment. Other countries in the an ar have complied with this example, return to date on a smaller scale. The main American an ar will provide an essential test case for whether appropriate solutions have the right to be found and also successfully imposed to restore depleted tropical soils and to keep tropical forests and other vulnerable eco-systems, while boosting the financial well-being of the population.

The chapters in this volume carry out important and also often novel insights right into these and many other issues. My co-editor, luis Rosero-Bixby, and I hope that this volume will certainly stimulate reader to think about the complexities the the main American an ar in new ways and will encourage future research by scholars both native the an ar and from other countries.

Finally, top top a personal note, I want to express my admiration for and appreciation of the enormous efforts that luis Rosero-Bixby and his colleagues put into organizing and hosting this conference, recruiting participants, selecting papers both because that the conference and also the volume, cajoling authors to end up their revisions, and also providing regular support because that the production of this English edition.

References

LaFeber, Walter (1993) Inevitable Revolutions: The United claims in central America. New York: W.W. Norton and also Co.Pérez-Brignoli, Hector (1989) A Brief history of main America.

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Berkeley: college of California Press.Rohter, Larry (1997) \"Maya dress Tells a new Story, and It\"s no Pretty\" New York Times, June 13, 1997.

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