Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and bases, proton theory of, proton theory of acids and also bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidIonic acidConjugate acid-base pairProton donorProton acceptor...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, likewise called proton theory of acids and bases, a theory, introduced separately in 1923 through the Danish chemist john Nicolaus Brønsted and also the English chemist cutting board Martin Lowry, stating that any type of compound that can transfer a proton to any other link is one acid, and also the compound the accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear bit with a unit positive electrical charge; the is stood for by the prize H+ because it constitutes the cell core of a hydrogen atom.


Overview of three theories the acids and also bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and Lewis theory.

according to the Brønsted-Lowry plan a problem can duty as one acid just in the existence of a base; similarly, a problem can function as a base just in the presence of an acid. Furthermore, when an acidic substance loser a proton, it creates a base, referred to as the conjugate base of one acid, and when a straightforward substance gains a proton, it forms an acid called the conjugate acid of a base. Thus, the reaction in between an acidic substance, such as hydrochloric acid, and a an easy substance, such together ammonia, might be stood for by the equation:

In bespeak to solve the various obstacles in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion definitions of acids and bases, a new, much more generalized definition...


In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the acid conjugate to the base ammonia, and the chloride ion (Cl-) is the base conjugate to hydrochloric acid.

The Brønsted-Lowry theory enlarges the variety of compounds taken into consideration to be acids and bases to incorporate not only the neutral molecule (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and also acetic acids, and also the alkali steel hydroxides) yet also details atoms and molecules with hopeful and an adverse electrical dues (cations and anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and some hydrated metal cations are considered acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and halogen ion are thought about bases.

The editors of Encyclopaedia brickandmortarphilly.comThis short article was many recently revised and also updated by Erik Gregersen, senior Editor.

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