David Harper is the CEO and founder that Bionic Turtle. He is additionally a published writer with a renowned YouTube channel on skilled finance topics.

You are watching: Which of the following is a characteristic of an organized securities exchange?

What are Stock Exchanges?

A stock exchange walk not very own shares. Instead, the acts together a industry where share buyers affix with share sellers. Stocks can be traded on numerous exchanges such together the brand-new York share Exchange (NYSE) or the Nasdaq.

Although many stocks space traded v a broker, it is essential to understand the relationship between exchanges and the companies that trade. Also, over there are various requirements for different exchanges designed to protect investors.

A stock exchange is a central location the brings corporations and governments so the investors have the right to buy and sell equities.Auction-based exchanges such together the brand-new York stock Exchange enable traders and brokers to physically and also verbally interact buy and also sell orders.Electronic exchanges take place on electronic platforms, therefore they don't need a central physical location for trades.Electronic communication networks connect buyers and also sellers directly by bypassing industry makers.The OTCBB and also Pink Sheets are two different over-the-counter sectors where share delisted or unlisted stocks trade.

just how Stock Exchanges work-related

A stock exchange is where different financial instruments are traded, consisting of equities, commodities, and also bonds. Exchanges bring corporations and also governments, together with investors. Exchanges help administer liquidity in the market, definition there are sufficient buyers and sellers so that trades deserve to be processed successfully without delays.

Exchanges additionally ensure that trading wake up in one orderly and fair manner so necessary financial information can betransfer come investors and financial professionals.

Stocks first become accessible on one exchange after ~ a firm conducts its early stage public offering (IPO). A company sells share to an initial collection of public shareholders in one IPO known as the primary market. ~ the IPO floats shares right into the hands of windy shareholders, this shares deserve to be sold and purchased on an exchange or the secondary market.

The general public have the right to trade shares on the an additional market after a company's initial publicly offering.

The exchange monitor the circulation of orders for each stock, and it"s the flow of supply and also demand that develops a stock"s price. Depending upon the form of brokerage account, friend may have the ability to view this flow of price action. Because that example, if a stock"s bid price is $40, this means an investors is informing the exchange that they are willing to buy the stock for $40. At the very same time, you might see an asking price that $41, meaning somebody else is willing to sell the stock because that $41. The difference in between the 2 is the bid-ask spread.

Auction Exchanges

Auction exchanges—or the auction market—is a location where buyers and sellers put in competitive bids and also offers simultaneously. In one auction exchange, the existing stock price is the greatest price a the person who lives is willing to spend on a security, when the shortest price is what the seller will accept. Trades space then matched, and also when combine together, the order is executed.

The auction sector is additionally referred to together the open up outcry system. Brokers and traders connect physically and also verbally top top the trade floor or pit come buy and sell securities. Back this system is progressively being phased the end by digital systems, some exchanges still use the auction system, including the new York share Exchange (NYSE).

The NYSE close up door Auction is the last occasion of the trade day once the closing price because that each stock is established by bringing every buyers and also sellers together to create a price for all those involved.

The NYSE closeup of the door auction is among the busiest trading times in the U.S. Equity industries when almost 223 million shares are traded.

brand-new York stock Exchange (NYSE)

The new York stock Exchange is the world's largest equities exchange. The parent company of the brand-new York stock Exchange is Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) together a an outcome of the merger v the europe exchange Euronext in 2007.

Although some of its attributes have been moved to electronic trading platforms, that remains among the world"s leading auction markets, meaning specialists (called "Designated market Makers") space physically current on its commerce floors. each specialist specialization in a details stock, buying and also selling the stock in the auction.

These professionals are under competitive danger by electronic-only exchanges that case to be more efficient—that is, lock execute faster trades and exhibit smaller sized bid-ask spreads—by eliminating person intermediaries.

Companies noted on the NYSE have great credibility due to the fact that they have to fulfill initial listing requirements and also comply with yearly maintenance requirements. To keep trading on the exchange, companies have to keep their price over $4per share.

Investors who profession on the NYSE advantage from a collection of minimum protections. Amongst several of the demands that the NYSE has enacted, the adhering to two are specifically significant:

electronic Exchanges

Many exchanges now enable trading electronically. There space no traders and no physical trading activity. Instead, trade takes place on an digital platform and doesn't call for a centralized location wherein buyers and also sellers can meet.

These exchanges are considered an ext efficient and much quicker than traditional exchanges and also carry the end billions of dollars in trades every day. The Nasdaq is one of the world"s leading electronic exchanges.

The Nasdaq

The Nasdaq is sometimes dubbed screen-based due to the fact that buyers and also sellers space only associated by computers over a telecommunications network. Market makers, likewise known as dealers, bring their own inventory that stock. Castle stand all set to buy and also sell share on the Nasdaq and also are required to short article their bid and ask prices.

The exchange has listing and also governance requirements similar to the NYSE. For example, a share must maintain a $4 minimum price. If a agency does not preserve these requirements, it deserve to be delisted to an over-the-counter (OTC) market. Because that example, on the brand-new York stock Exchange (NYSE), ifa security"s price closed below $1.00 for 30 consecutive trading days, the exchange would certainly initiate the delisting process.

On average, an ext than 10 million trades were executed via the Nasdaq ~ above a everyday basis in November 2020.

Electronic interaction Networks (ECNs)

Electronic interaction networks (ECNs) are component of an exchangeclass called alternate trading equipment (ATSs). ECNs attach buyers and sellers directly since they permit a direct connection in between the two; ECNs bypass industry makers. Think of them as an alternative way to profession stocks detailed on the Nasdaq and, increasingly, other exchanges such as the NYSE or foreign exchanges.

There are number of innovative and also entrepreneurial ECNs that are generally great for customers because they attitude a competitive danger to timeless exchanges, and therefore press down transaction costs. Although part ECNs enable retail investor to trade, ECNs are mostly used through institutional investors, which are firms the invest big sums for other investors, such as pension money managers.

Examples the ECNs incorporate Nasdaq"s Interbank Network electronic Transfer (INET), Arca Options, i beg your pardon is overseen by the NYSE, and E*Trade"s Instinet.

Electronic interaction networks (ECN) allow brokerage firms and traders from various geographical regions of the people to trade exterior the normal trading hours of major exchanges.

Over-the-Counter (OTC)

The hatchet over-the-counter (OTC) advert to sectors other 보다 the arranged exchanges described above. OTC markets typically list tiny companies, numerous of which have fallen turn off to the OTC market because they to be delisted. 2 of the major OTC sectors include:

Over-the-Counter Bulletin board (OTCBB)

The first is the Over-the-Counter Bulletin board (OTCBB)—an electronic neighborhood of industry makers. Service providers that fall off the Nasdaq often finish up here. ~ above the OTCBB, there space no quantitative minimum or no minimum annual sales or assets required to list.

Pink Sheets

The second OTC sector is described as the Pink Sheets, a listing business that doesn"t require carriers to register with the Securities and also Exchange the supervisory board (SEC). Liquidity is often minimal, and these suppliers are not compelled to submit quarterly 10Qs.

OTC threats

Some separation, personal, instance investors space wary of OTC stocks due to the fact that of the extra risks involved. Top top the other hand, some solid companies trade on the OTC. In fact, several larger companies have deliberately switched come OTC sectors to prevent the bureaucratic burden and costly fees that accompany regulatory oversight laws such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

You should additionally be mindful when investing in the OTC if you carry out not have experience with penny stocks, as these mainly trade over-the-counter.

other Exchanges

There are countless other exchanges located throughout the world, including exchanges that trade stocks and also bonds and also those the exchange digital currencies.


The Tokyo share Exchange (TSE) is the biggest in Japan. The TSE has more than 3,700 noted companies, with a combined market capitalization of much more than $5.6 trillion.

The Shanghai stock Exchange (SSE) is the largest in mainland China. Plenty of investments are traded ~ above the exchange, consisting of stocks, bonds, and also mutual funds. The Shenzhen share Exchange (SZSE) is the second-largest share exchange operating separately in China.


Euronext is Europe"s largest stock exchange, and also although it has undergone lot of mergers, it to be initially formed by the mergers of the Amsterdam, Paris, and also Brussels stock exchanges.The London share Exchange (LSE) is situated in the united Kingdom and is the second-largest exchange in Europe.

The most well-known index in ~ the LSE is the financial Times share Exchange (FTSE) 100 re-publishing Index. The “Footsie” consists of the top 100 well-established publicly traded service providers or blue-chip stocks.

Digital Exchanges

Coinbase is the leading cryptocurrency exchange in the joined States. Coinbase has an progressed trading platform that facilitates cryptocurrency trades for sleeve investors and also custodial accounts for institutions. Back Bitcoin is the most well-known cryptocurrency, others space traded via Coinbase, such together Ethereum and Litecoin. Coinbase is licensed together a cryptocurrency exchange in 42 U.S. States.

Binance is the leading an international exchange for cryptocurrencies v an median trading volume of 2 billion per day. However, Binance doesn"t currently enable for store in U.S. Dollars but allows for a few cryptocurrencies to be transacted via a credit transaction or debit card. The exchange enables other money deposits, including euros.

Kraken is a san Francisco-based cryptocurrency exchange where investors can buy or offer cryptocurrencies using miscellaneous fiat currencies, consisting of U.S. Dollars, euros, Canadian dollars, and also the Japanese yen.More than a dozen virtual currencies deserve to be traded via the Kraken exchange, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, EOS, and Monero. Together in the instance of most crypto exchanges, investors have to establish and also fund their digital wallet, which web links to the trade account.

stock Exchanges frequently asked questions

What space the 3 major Stock Exchanges in the U.S.?

The brand-new York share Exchange (NYSE) is the biggest stock exchange in the U.S. And also the civilization by market capitalization. The NASDAQ is the second-largest share exchange in the U.S. When the American stock Exchange, i beg your pardon is now well-known as NYSE Amex share after the salvation by NYSE Euronext in 2008, is the third-largest in the U.S.

What Is a Simple definition of stock Exchange?

A stock exchange is a market that brings together buyers and sellers to facilitate investments in stocks.

What Is the Difference between Stock Exchange and also Stock Market?

A share exchange is a marketplace or the framework that facilitates equity trading. ~ above the various other hand, a stock sector is an umbrella hatchet representing all of the stocks that trade in a particular an ar or country. A stock industry is frequently represented together an index or group of miscellaneous stocks such together the S&P 500.

What Is the function of a stock Exchange?

A share exchange bring companies and also investors together. A share exchange helps service providers raise resources or money by issuing same shares to be sold to investors. The suppliers invest those funds back into your business, and investors, ideally, knife a benefit from their invest in those companies.

The Bottom heat

Every stock have to list on an exchange wherein buyers and also sellers meet. The two large U.S. Exchanges are the NYSE and the Nasdaq. Companies listed on one of two people of this exchanges must accomplish various minimum requirements and also baseline rules worrying the "independence" of your boards.

But these are by no means the only legitimate exchanges. Electronic interaction networks are relatively new, but they space sure to grab a bigger part of the transaction pie in the future. Finally, the OTC sector is a fine location for competent investors through an itch to speculate and also the know-how to conduct a tiny extra early out diligence.

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