Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion of this chapter, you will be able to:

understand the history and breakthrough of networking technologies;define the key terms associated with networking technologies;understand the prominence of broadband technologies; anddescribe business networking.

You are watching: Which of the following internet sites is a typical web 2.0 page?

Please note, over there is an updated version of this book available at https://opentextbook.site. If you room not required to use this edition for a course, you may want to check it out.

Introduction

In the at an early stage days the computing, computer systems were viewed as gadgets for making calculations, save data, and automating service processes. However, as the gadgets evolved, that became apparent that plenty of of the features of telecommunications might be incorporated into the computer. During the 1980s, plenty of organizations began combining their once-separate telecommunications and also information-systems departments right into an details technology, or IT, department. This ability for computer systems to interact with one one more and, maybe more importantly, come facilitate communication between individuals and also groups, has been vital factor in the growth of computing over the past several decades.

Computer networking really started in the 1960s v the birth of the Internet, together we’ll watch below. However, if the Internet and also web were evolving, that company networking was likewise taking form in the kind of neighborhood area networks and also client-server computing. In the 1990s, as soon as the internet came of age, internet technologies began to pervade all areas of the organization. Now, through the internet a worldwide phenomenon, it would certainly be unthinkable to have a computer that did no include interactions capabilities. This chapter will testimonial the different technologies that have been placed in place to permit this interactions revolution.

A Brief history of the Internet

In the Beginning: ARPANET

The story the the Internet, and networking in general, have the right to be traced ago to the so late 1950s. The us was in the depths of the Cold War v the USSR, and each country closely watched the other to recognize which would gain a armed forces or intelligence advantage. In 1957, the Soviets surprised the US through the beginning of Sputnik, propelling us into the an are age. In response to Sputnik, the us Government developed the progressed Research Projects agency (ARPA), who initial role was come ensure that the united state was no surprised again. It was from ARPA, now referred to as DARPA (Defense Advanced Research projects Agency), that the Internet very first sprang.

ARPA was the center of computer research in the 1960s, however there was simply one problem: plenty of of the computer systems could no talk to each other. In 1968, ARPA sent a inquiry for proposals for a communication an innovation that would permit different computers located around the nation to be incorporated together right into one network. Twelve companies responded to the request, and also a firm named Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) winner the contract. They started work right away and were may be to finish the job just one year later: in September, 1969, the ARPANET was turned on. The very first four nodes to be at UCLA, Stanford, MIT, and the college of Utah.

The Internet and also the World broad Web

Over the next decade, the ARPANET grew and also gained popularity. Throughout this time, various other networks also came into existence. Different organizations were linked to different networks. This resulted in a problem: the networks might not speak to each other. Each network used its own proprietary language, or protocol (see sidebar because that the definition of protocol), come send information earlier and forth. This difficulty was solved by the innovation of transmission regulate protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP). TCP/IP was designed to permit networks to run on various protocols to have actually an intermediary protocol that would enable them to communicate. So as lengthy as your network sustained TCP/IP, you could communicate with every one of the various other networks running TCP/IP. TCP/IP quickly ended up being the conventional protocol and permitted networks to interact with every other. It is native this breakthrough the we an initial got the hatchet Internet, which simply means “an interconnected network of networks.”

Sidebar: An internet Vocabulary Lesson

Networking interaction is full of some really technical concepts based upon some straightforward principles. Find out the terms below and also you’ll be able to hold your very own in a conversation around the Internet.

Packet: The fundamental unit that datatransfer end the Internet. When a device intends to send a message to another device (for example, your pc sends a inquiry to YouTube to open up a video), it division the blog post down right into smaller pieces, referred to as packets. Every packet has actually the sender’s address, the destination address, a sequence number, and also a piece of the overall message to be sent.Hub: A simple network device that connect other gadgets to the network and sends packets to all the devices linked to it.Bridge: A network maker that connects 2 networks together and only enables packets v that are needed.Switch: A network maker that connect multiple tools together and also filters packets based on their location within the connected devices. Router: A maker that receives and analyzes packets and also then courses them in the direction of their destination. In some cases, a router will send a packet to one more router; in various other cases, it will send it directly to its destination.DNS: DNS represents “domain name system,” i beg your pardon acts together the brochure on the Internet. As soon as a inquiry to accessibility a maker with a domain name is given, a DNS server is queried. It return the IP deal with of the machine requested, permitting for appropriate routing.Protocol: In computer system networking, a protocol is the collection of rules that permit two (or more) devices to exchange information earlier and forth throughout the network.

*
Worldwide net use over 24-hour duration (click to walk to site of origin). (Public Domain. Courtesy that the internet Census 2012 project.)

As us moved into the 1980s, computers were added to the internet at an enhancing rate. These computer systems were primarily from government, academic, and research organizations. Lot to the surprised of the engineers, the at an early stage popularity the the web was driven by the use of electronic mail (see sidebar below).

Using the net in these early days was no easy. In order to access information on another server, you had actually to know just how to type in the regulates necessary to access it, as well as know the surname of the device. The all changed in 1990, once Tim Berners-Lee presented his World large Web project, which listed an easy method to navigate the web through the usage of connected text (hypertext). The World large Web acquired even much more steam through the release of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, which allowed graphics and also text come be merged together as a means to current information and navigate the Internet. The Mosaic internet browser took turn off in popularity and also was soon superseded by Netscape Navigator, the an initial commercial web browser, in 1994. The Internet and also the World wide Web were now poised because that growth. The chart listed below shows the expansion in users from the beforehand days until now.

*
Growth of web usage, 1995–2012 (click come enlarge). Data taken from InternetWorldStats.com.

The Dot-Com Bubble

In the 1980s and also early 1990s, the net was being regulated by the nationwide Science foundation (NSF). The NSF had limited commercial endeavors on the Internet, which meant that no one could buy or sell anything online. In 1991, the NSF transferred its function to three various other organizations, thus gaining the US government out the direct manage over the Internet and essentially opened up business online.

This brand-new commercialization that the web led to what is now well-known as the dot-com bubble. A frenzy of invest in brand-new dot-com companies took location in the late 1990s, running up the stock sector to new highs ~ above a everyday basis. This investment bubble was propelled by the truth that investor knew that online business would readjust everything. Unfortunately, countless of these brand-new companies had negative business models and ended up with tiny to present for every one of the funds the were invested in them. In 2000 and also 2001, the bubble burst and also many of these brand-new companies went the end of business. Plenty of companies also survived, including the still-thriving Amazon (started in 1994) and eBay (1995). After ~ the dot-com bubble burst, a new reality came to be clear: in order to success online, e-business companies would require to build real organization models and show that they might survive financially utilizing this new technology.

Web 2.0

In the first couple of years the the World broad Web, creating and also putting increase a website compelled a specific collection of knowledge: you had actually to know exactly how to set up a server top top the World large Web, just how to obtain a domain name, how to write internet pages in HTML, and how come troubleshoot various technical issues as they came up. Someone who did these tasks for a website ended up being known together a webmaster.

As the web gained in popularity, the became an ext and more apparent the those that did not have actually the an abilities to be a webmaster still want to produce online content and also have their own piece that the web. This require was met with new technologies that noted a website framework for those who wanted to put content online. Blogger and also Wikipedia are instances of these early on Web 2.0 applications, which permitted anyone through something to say a ar to go and say it, there is no the need for expertise HTML or web-server technology.

Starting in the early on 2000s, internet 2.0 applications began a second bubble the optimism and investment. It seemed that everyone want their own blog or photo-sharing site. Right here are several of the service providers that came of age during this time: MySpace (2003), Photobucket (2003), Flickr (2004), facebook (2004), WordPress (2005), Tumblr (2006), and also Twitter (2006). The can be fried indication that internet 2.0 had actually taken host was once Time magazine named “You” its “Person of the Year” in 2006.

Sidebar: E-mail Is the “Killer” application for the Internet

When the an individual computer to be created, it to be a an excellent little toy for an innovation hobbyists and armchair programmers. As soon as the spreadsheet to be invented, however, businesses took notice, and the remainder is history. The spreadsheet to be the killer application for the an individual computer: people bought PCs just so they can run spreadsheets.

The web was originally designed together a method for scientists and researchers come share information and also computing power among themselves. However, as soon as digital mail to be invented, it began driving need for the Internet. This wasn’t what the developers had actually in mind, however it turned out that people connecting to people was the killer application for the Internet.

We room seeing this again today with social networks, particularly Facebook. Countless who weren’t encouraged to have actually an online presence currently feel left the end without a facebook account. The connections made in between people using internet 2.0 applications choose Facebook ~ above their personal computer or smartphone is driving growth yet again.

Sidebar: The Internet and also the World wide Web room Not the same Thing

Many times, the state “Internet” and “World vast Web,” or even just “the web,” are supplied interchangeably. However really, lock are not the same thing at all! The net is an interconnected network the networks. Many services run across the Internet: electronic mail, voice and video, record transfers, and, yes, the World large Web.

The World wide Web is just one piece of the Internet. The is made up of internet servers that have actually HTML pages that space being perceived on devices with internet browsers. It is really that simple.

The growth of Broadband

In the at an early stage days the the Internet, most access was done via a modem end an analog telephone line. A modem (short because that “modulator-demodulator”) was associated to the incoming phone line and also a computer system in order to attach you to a network. Speeds to be measured in bits-per-second (bps), with speeds farming from 1200 bps come 56,000 bps over the years. Connection to the web via this modems is called dial-up access. Dial-up was very inconvenient because it tied increase the phone line. As the net became much more and more interactive, dial-up also hindered usage, as customers wanted come transfer much more and more data. Together a suggest of reference, downloading and install a typical 3.5 mb track would take it 24 minute at 1200 bps and 2 minute at 28,800 bps.

A broadband connection is characterized as one that has actually speeds that at least 256,000 bps, though most connections today are much faster, measured in millions of bits per second (megabits or mbps) or even billions (gigabits). Because that the residence user, a broadband connection is usually completed via the cable television lines or phone present (DSL). Both cable and DSL have comparable prices and speeds, though every individual may discover that one is much better than the other for their specific area. Speeds because that cable and DSL can vary during various times of the day or week, depending on how lot data traffic is being used. In much more remote areas, whereby cable and also phone companies execute not carry out access, residence Internet connections have the right to be do via satellite. The average house broadband rate is anywhere between 3 mbps and also 30 mbps. In ~ 10 mbps, downloading a typical 3.5 mb track would take much less than a second. For businesses that require much more bandwidth and also reliability, telecommunications service providers can carry out other options, such together T1 and T3 lines.

*
Growth that broadband usage (Source: Pew Internet and also American Life task Surveys)

Broadband access is important because it effects how the internet is used. As soon as a community has accessibility to broadband, it permits them to interact much more online and also increases the usage of digital tools overall. Access to broadband is now taken into consideration a an easy human best by the joined Nations, as declared in their 2011 statement:

“Broadband modern technologies are fundamentally transforming the method we live,” the Broadband Commission for Digital Development, set up last year by the UN Educational scientific and social Organization (UNESCO) and also the UN worldwide Telecommunications Union (ITU), stated in issuing “The Broadband Challenge” in ~ a management summit in Geneva.

“It is an important that no one be excluded indigenous the new worldwide knowledge societies we space building. We believe that interaction is not just a person need – it is a right.”<1>

Wireless Networking

Today us are supplied to gift able to access the internet wherever we go. Ours smartphones can accessibility the Internet; Starbucks provides wireless “hotspots” for our laptops or iPads. These wireless technologies have actually made internet access more convenient and also have made gadgets such as tablets and laptops much much more functional. Let’s research a few of this wireless technologies.

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a technology that takes an web signal and converts it right into radio waves. This radio waves can be picked up within a radius of about 65 feet by gadgets with a wireless adapter. Numerous Wi-Fi specifications have actually been developed over the years, beginning with 802.11b (1999), complied with by the 802.11g specification in 2003 and also 802.11n in 2009. Each new specification enhanced the speed and selection of Wi-Fi, enabling for much more uses. One of the primary locations where Wi-Fi is being used is in the home. Home users space purchasing Wi-Fi routers, connecting lock to your broadband connections, and then connecting multiple tools via Wi-Fi.

Mobile Network

As the cellphone has advanced into the smartphone, the desire because that Internet access on these devices has resulted in data networks being included as component of the mobile call network. While internet connections to be technically easily accessible earlier, it to be really v the relax of the 3G networks in 2001 (2002 in the US) that smartphones and also other cellular devices could access data from the Internet. This brand-new capability drove the market for new and much more powerful smartphones, such together the iPhone, introduced in 2007. In 2011, wireless carriers started offering 4G data speeds, giving the cellular networks the very same speeds the customers were supplied to getting via their house connection.

See more: Dynamic Ram (Dram) Chips Are Faster And More Reliable Than Any Version Of Sdram Chips.

Sidebar: Why Doesn’t my Cellphone occupational When I take trip Abroad?

As mobile call technologies have evolved, carriers in different countries have preferred different interaction standards for your mobile phone call networks. In the US, both the the two competing standards exist: GSM (used by AT&T and also T-Mobile) and CDMA (used by the other major carriers). Each standard has actually its pros and cons, however the bottom heat is the phones using one conventional cannot conveniently switch come the other. In the US, this is no a huge deal because mobile networks exist to assistance both standards. However when you take trip to other countries, you will find that most of them use GSM networks, v the one large exception gift Japan, which has standardized ~ above CDMA. The is possible for a mobile phone making use of one kind of network to move to the other kind of network by switching out the center card, i m sorry controls your accessibility to the cell phone network. However, this will not work-related in all cases. If you space traveling abroad, the is always best to consult through your mobile provider to determine the best method to accessibility a mobile network.