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StatPearls . Sweetheart Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and also Lower Limb, Femoral Muscles

Alyssa L. Ransom; Margaret A. Sinkler; Shivajee V. Nallamothu.

Author Information

Introduction

The muscles of the femoral region of the lower limb are split into 3 compartments. The anterior or extensor, medial or adductor, and posterior or flexor compartments. Every compartment is separated indigenous the others by one intermuscular septum that runs indigenous the fascia lata to the linea aspera the the femur. The anterior compartment contains pectineus, iliopsoas, psoas minor, iliacus, sartorius and also the quadriceps muscles. These muscles arise from the hip, spine, and also proximal femur. The medial compartment is made up of the adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, gracilis and obturator externus. This muscles originate close to the anteroinferior exterior surface that the bony pelvis and also insert at the linea aspera. The posterior compartment is made up of a group of muscles called the hamstrings, consisting of semitendinosus, semimembranosus and also biceps femoris. These muscles arise indigenous the ischial tuberosity and also the femur and also insert ~ above the medial tibia and also lateral fibula. <1><2><3>


Structure and Function

The three compartments of the femoral an ar each have a unique function. The anterior or extensor compartment is responsible because that flexion that the hip and extension the the knee. The posterior or flexor compartment are the element extensors that the hip and flexors the the knee.  The medial or adductor compartment is composed of the adductors of the thigh.<4><5>

Fascial compartments different the muscles of the thigh in order to develop the compartments outlined above. The intermuscular septae are expansions of the fascia lata and also attach to the linea aspera the the femur. The lateral intermuscular septum off the anterior and posterior compartments. The medial intermuscular septum the end the anterior and medial compartments. The posterior intermuscular septum the end the medial and also posterior compartments. 

The fascia lata is deep fascia neighboring the thigh. This fascia layer plot to border the outward expansion of the thigh muscles. The iliotibial (IT) tract is a thickened section of the fascia the is discovered on the lateral element of the thigh. The aponeurosis that the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus maximus muscles additionally contribute come the that tract. Inferior to the inguinal ligament, the saphenous opening permits for the i of the good saphenous vein. 

Anterior Compartment 

The pectineus adducts, flexes, and also assists in medial rotation that the thigh. The pectineus is a tiny square muscle that is uncovered in the superomedial area of the thigh. Originating indigenous the superior pubic ramus and also inserting top top the pectineal heat of the femur. <6><7><8>

The iliopsoas is comprised of the psoas major and minor, and also the iliacus. These muscles work-related together come flex the i know well joint and stabilize this joint during standing. The psoas major originates from the transverse processes of the T12 to L5 vertebrae. The psoas significant then overcome down through the pelvis and also under the inguinal ligament to insert the the lesser trochanter the the femur. The psoas minor, uncovered anterior come the psoas major, originates native the T12 with L1 vertebrae and also then inserts ~ above the pectineal line. The iliacus originates indigenous the iliac crest, iliac fossa, ala the the sacrum, and also anterior sacroiliac ligaments. It joins the psoas muscle traveling deep come the inguinal ligament and also inserts top top the tendon that the psoas major and the distal component of the lesser trochanter of the femur. 

The sartorius flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates the thigh at the i know good joint. It additionally aids in the flexion the the knee joint and also the medial rotation that the leg in this position. The sartorius is a lengthy band-like muscle that runs lateral come medial crossing the anterior element of the thigh. That originates native the anterior premium iliac spine and also runs superficially to the quadriceps muscles and inserts ~ above the superomedial surface of the tibia via the pes anserinus. It is the longest muscle in the body.

The quadriceps encompass four huge muscles, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius. The quadriceps femoris is one of the the strongest muscle teams in the body that covers the anterior aspect of the femur. This group of muscles has actually a typical function. They extend the leg at the knee joint. The rectus femoris has an additional function in stabilizing the hip joint and also aiding in the flexion of the thigh. The rectus femoris originates native the anterior worse iliac spine. It is named for that course right down the anterior part of the thigh. The vastus lateralis is the largest muscle in the quadriceps. The vastus lateralis originates native the better trochanter and is discovered on the lateral element of the thigh. The vastus medialis originates from the intertrochanteric line and medial lip that the linea aspera that the femur. That covers the medial aspect of the femur.  Vastus intermedius originates from the anterior and also lateral pillar of the femur. It can be found lying in between the vastus lateral is and the vastus medialis, simply deep come the rectus femoris. The quadriceps tendon is a common tendon for all 4 quadriceps muscles, which inserts into the patella. The patellar ligament extends native the patella to the tibial tuberosity. 

Posterior Compartment

The hamstring is composed of a group of 3 muscles. 

The semitendinosus extends the hip and flexes the knee. The muscle originates in ~ the ischial tuberosity and also inserts at the medial surface of the tibial via a structure referred to as the pes anserinus. 

The semimembranosus extend the thigh, flexs the leg, and also medially rotates the leg as soon as the knee is flexed. The muscle originates ~ above the ischial tuberosity and also inserts ~ above the medial condyle of the tibia.

The biceps femoris flexes the leg and also when the knee is flexed rotates that laterally, and aids in the expansion of the thigh. The biceps femoris has actually a long and also short head. The lengthy head originates on the ischial tuberosity and inserts on the head the the fibula. This head receives innervation from the tibial portion of the sciatic nerve. The short head the the biceps femoris originates on the linea aspera the the femur and inserts on the head the the fibula. This head obtain innervations native the fibular section of the sciatic nerve. 

Medial Compartment

The adductor longus is a significant adductor that the thigh. The muscle is the many anterior muscle in the group. That fans the end from its beginning on the anterior aspect of the pubis and also inserts ~ above the linea aspera of the femur. It covers both the anterior section of the adductor brevis and the central portion that the adductor magnus.

The adductor brevis aids in adduction the the thigh and also to a smaller degree flexion. The adductor brevis is the the smallest of the group, lying just deep to pectineus and also adductor longus. The originates native the body and also inferior ramus that the pubis and inserts top top the proximal section of the linea aspera. This muscle divides the obturator nerve right into an anterior and also posterior division.

The adductor magnus contains both one adductor component and a hamstring part. The adductor part adducts and flexes the thigh. The hamstring component extends and also adducts the thigh. The adductor magnus is the biggest of the adductor muscles and is the most posterior of the adductor muscles, which crosses right into the posterior compartment. The adductor portion originates native the worse ramus that the pubis and inserts on the linea aspera and also the medial supracondylar ridge. This section of the muscle has an opened in the tendon enabling for the passage of necessary vessels to the posterior next of the knee. The hamstring section originates native the ischial tuberosity and also inserts of the adductor tubercle the the femur.

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The gracilis adducts the thigh, flexes the leg, and aids in medial rotation that the leg. The gracilis is the weakest and most medial of the adductor muscles. It can be well-known by its lengthy slender appearance. It crosses both the hip and also the knee joint, originating indigenous the body and also inferior pubic rami and inserts with two various other muscles in the pes anserinus i beg your pardon attaches to the medial surface of the tibia. 

The obturator externus is a lateral rotator the the thigh and is a major stabilizer the the head that the femur in the acetabulum. The obturator externus is a little muscle uncovered in the superomedial area of the thigh. The muscle originates native the external surface of the obturator membrane and inserts top top the posterior next of the greater trochanter. It overcome distally come the neck of the femur and also the acetabulum.