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As beforehand as September 1861, the CSA started issuing national currency, promise to salary the bearer the confront amount — six months ~ the ratification of a peace treaty.

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Within job of the autumn of ft Sumter, four more states join the Confederacy: Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The battle lines were currently drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in virtually every way. Virtually 21 million human being lived in 23 northern states. The South claimed just 9 million world — including 3.5 million slaves — in 11 confederate states. Regardless of the North"s better population, however, the South had an army practically equal in size during the very first year that the war.

The North had an enormous industrial advantage as well. At the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the industrial capacity of the Union. But that statistic was misleading. In 1860, the North made 97 percent the the country"s firearms, 96 percent the its railroad locomotives, 94 percent that its cloth, 93 percent the its pig iron, and also over 90 percent that its boots and shoes. The North had twice the density of railroads per square mile. There was not also one rifleworks in the entire South.


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The southern was in ~ a severe disadvantage as soon as it concerned manufacturing, but the Confederacy regulated to save its firearms firing by developing ammunition from melted-down bells indigenous churches and also town squares.

All of the primary ingredients that gunpowder were imported. Because the North managed the navy, the seas to be in the hands of the Union. A blockade can suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and also willpower.

The South could produce all the food that needed, though delivering it come soldiers and civilians was a major problem. The South also had a good nucleus of trained officers. Seven of the eight military colleges in the nation were in the South.

The South additionally proved to be an extremely resourceful. By the end of the war, the had developed armories and also foundries in several states. Lock built large gunpowder mills and melted down thousands of church and plantation bells for bronze to construct cannon.

The South"s biggest strength put in the reality that it was fighting ~ above the defensive in its own territory. Familiar with the landscape, Southerners can harass northern invaders.

The military and also political objectives of the Union were much more complicated to accomplish. The Union had actually to invade, conquer, and occupy the South. It had actually to ruin the South"s capacity and also will to resist — a formidable challenge in any type of war.


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"We had the poorest commissary arrangements, and also all I could get because that my men was salt and also hard crackers. Ns made the convalescents shoot squirrels, floor hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys v which to do soup because that the men." -from the memoirs of Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners appreciated the initial benefit of morale: The southern was fighting to keep its means of life, whereas the North to be fighting to keep a union. Slavery did not come to be a moral reason of the Union initiative until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the battle began, many an essential questions were still unanswered. What if the slave says of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and also Delaware had actually joined the Confederacy? What if brothers or France had pertained to the aid of the South? What if a couple of decisive beforehand Confederate victories had turned north public opinion versus the war?

Indeed, the phibìc looked much much better on paper. However many components undetermined at the outbreak the war could have tilted the balance sheet toward a different outcome.