occurs when sensory receptors and also the nervous mechanism receive economic stimulation energies from ours environment
Perceptionthe procedure that wake up in the brain of organizing and interpreting sensory information, permitting us to recognize coherent objects and also events.

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Bottom-up processinganalysis that starts with the sensory receptors and works come the brain’s integration of sensory information.
Top-down processinginformation analysis guided by higher-level mental processes, as once we build perceptions illustration on our experience and expectations.
Selective attentionthe concentrating of conscious awareness ~ above a certain stimulus.
Inattentional blindnessfailing to watch visible objects
Change blindnessfailing to an alert modifications in the environment
Psychophysicsthe research of relationships in between the physical attributes of stimuli, such together their intensity, and our mental experience the them.
Absolute thresholdthe minimum stimulation necessary to detect a details stimulus 50% the the time.
Signal detection theorypredicts how and when we detect the existence of a pass out stimulus between background stimulation.
Subliminalstimulus listed below one’s pure threshold for aware awareness.
Primingthe activation, regularly unconsciously, of particular associations, therefore predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response.
Difference thresholdthe minimum discrepancy in between two stimuli forced for detection.
Weber’s lawto be regarded as different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (rather than a continuous amount).
Sensory adaptationdiminished sensitivity together a consequence of consistent stimulation.
Transductiontransforming of external stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells into electric neural impulses our brains have the right to interpret and also process; counter of one form of power into another.
Wavelengththe street from the optimal of one light or sound tide to the top of the next.
Huethe dimension of shade that is figured out by the wavelength the light; what we understand as the shade names blue, green, and also so forth.
Intensitythe amount of power in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave’s amplitude.
Pupilthe flexible opening in the center of the eye v which light enters.
Irisa ring that muscle organization that creates the colored portion of the eye about the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
Lensthe transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to assist focus the photos on the retina.
Retinathe light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and also cones plus layers the neurons that begin the processing of intuitive information.
Accommodationthe process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or much objects top top the retina.
Rodsretinal receptors the detect black, white, and gray; important for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don’t respond.
Conesretinal receptor cells the are concentrated near the facility of the retina and also that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions; detect well detail and give rise to shade sensations.
Optic Nervecarries neural impulses indigenous the eye to the brain.
Blind Spotat the suggest the optic nerve pipeline the eye, there space no receptor cells producing an area where there is not sight
Foveathe main focal point in the retina, about which the eye’s cap cluster.
Feature detectorsnerve cells in the mind that respond to particular features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
Parallel processingthe evaluation of many elements of a difficulty simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for countless functions, including vision.
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theorythe idea the the retina has three different color receptors – one most sensitive come red, one come green, one come blue – which, when created in combination can develop the late of any type of color.

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Opponent-process theorythe idea that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) allow color vision.