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Members the the 15th Evacuation Hospital transport wounded troops from evade WC-54 Ambulances right into Hospital Ward tents. Picture taken in August, 1944.

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Background:

The Medical Battalion to be a Divisional medical unit developed to furnish clinical support because that the Infantry Division. Its main mission to be to organize and conduct the vital evacuation and also medical care for casualties the the Division. Because of the high mobility the the Division, the installations the the medical Battalion had to be of a much more temporary nature and possess boosted readiness and capacity to maintain contact with the different units of the Division. The medical Battalion was thus charged v the evacuation of all casualties from the Infantry Battalion and Regimental assist Stations. If for any type of reason, casualties could not it is in gathered in ~ the aid Stations, the Collecting suppliers would eliminate casualties straight from the field.The Medical Battalion was arranged as a sort of ‘miniature’ clinical organization in stimulate to maintain the finest operative coordination of all the existing facilities and also to give adaptability to a possible expansion the the medical company when necessary. It constantly accompanied the division in the field!

Organization:


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T/O 8-15, April 1, 1942, showing the company of the medical Battalion, Infantry Division.


Basic personnel figures (1942 data) : 34 Officers, 470 Enlisted Men, 1 attached Chaplain (of i beg your pardon 24 were medical Officers, 8 to be Medical governmental Corps Officers, 2 to be Dental Officers, and 470 to be Enlisted guys – amongst which 67 Noncommissioned Officers, 52 Technicians, and also 351 Privates an initial Class/Privates).Vehicles provided for transportation numbered (1942 data) : 36 x ¾-Ton Ambulances, 14 x 2-Wheel Cargo Trailers, 7 x 250-Gallon Water Tank Trailers, 9 x ¼-Ton Trucks, 4 x ¾-Ton Command & enlightenment Trucks, 3 x ¾-Ton Weapon Carriers, 6 x 1 ½-Ton 4×4 Cargo Trucks, and also 16 x 2 ½-Ton 6×6 Cargo Trucks.

Organic Units:

The MEDICAL BATTALION, Infantry Division consisted of:

1 Battalion Headquarters3 Collecting suppliers (usually designated firm A, B, and also C)1 Clearing agency (usually designated agency D)
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Diagramatical view of the company of the clinical Battalion, Infantry Division.


Medical Battalion Headquarters:Battalion Headquarters to be an company of command and control, consisting of the Commanding Officer (MC), the executive Officer + plans & training Officer (XO + S-3, linked duty), and also the Adjutant + Personnel Officer (i.e. MAC + S-1). An additional Officer in fee of intelligence (S-2) was later on (1944) included and normally delegated together a Liaison Officer at division Headquarters. The fastened Chaplain to be usually current at the Clearing Station. Enlisted personnel employed at Battalion Headquarters were members that the Headquarters & Headquarters Detachment. A Captain the the Hq & Hq Det was the it is provided Officer for the medical Battalion, and additionally the basic Supply Officer the the Division. The CO normally was a sublievenant Colonel.Headquarters created the medical Battalion’s Command Post! This was to be located in vicinity of the Clearing Station, which was the focal point of the division medical support. Below were situated the workplaces of the clinical Battalion CO and his staff, and the article Center. A telephone heat generally associated the medical Battalion CP v the division CP.


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Illustration reflecting the organization of the clinical Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment.


Headquarters and also Headquarters Detachment, medical Battalion:The normal features of the Headquarters & Headquarters Detachment was the day-to-day operation of activities necessary because that the complete management and maintenance of the medical Battalion v such solutions as supply – chaos – and clerical duty. It more operated the Division’s medical distributing point. The Headquarters losing normally collection up that is installations in vicinity of the Clearing Station and also the clinical Battalion CP. By centralizing Battalion Headquarters and the Headquarters offhanded close come the Clearing Station, contact was always rapidly preserved with Collecting suppliers by means of Ambulance-borne messages. By dispersing (most important) the transportation equipment and personnel of these installations, there was tiny likelihood of them being associated in foe air attacks.

Personnel, exclude, of Battalion Headquarters, commonly consisted (1942 data) of : 1 Captain (MAC), 1 very first Lieutenant, 2 second Lieutenants, and also 44 Enlisted Men. The total variety of available vehicles to be 15.

Battalion Headquarters Section: consisted (1942 data) that : 3 Officers and 8 Enlisted Men.

The rest of the Headquarters organization consisted of :


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View of a medical Battalion Command Post


Detachment Headquarters Section: consisted (1942 data) that : 1 Officer and also 16 Enlisted Men. The Officer in command was usually a Captain. The Officer in command was later made responsible for Battalion supplies, designated S-4.

Personnel Section: consisted (1942 data) that : 1 Officer and also 4 Enlisted Men. The Officer in charge, i.e. A second Lieutenant was assisted by Personnel Clerks. This specific Section operated under supervision the the S-1 (Adjutant).


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Illustration reflecting Supply ar distributing Medical and General gives to the medical Battalion …


General and also Medical it is provided Section: consisted (1942 data) of : 1 Officer and 8 Enlisted Men. The Officer to be either a 2nd Lieutenant (MAC) or a qualified Warrant Officer. This ar operated under supervision that the S-4 (Supply Officer).

Motor maintenance Section: consisted (1942 data) the : 1 Officer and 8 Enlisted Men. The Officer in charge was a an initial Lieutenant (MAC). This Section also operated under the S-4.

The COLLECTING COMPANY, medical Battalion, Infantry Division:The medical Battalion had actually three (3) Collecting Companies, each identical in organization, transportation, and equipment.


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Diagram showing the organization of a Collecting Company.


Collecting service providers were the forward echelon that the division Medical Service. They were the connecting links in the chain that evacuation in between Infantry help Stations and department Clearing Stations. Their mission was to:

Remove evacuees native Infantry Regiment aid Stations come Collecting StationsPrepare evacuees in ~ the Collecting station for additional evacuationTransport evacuees by Ambulance from Collecting train station to division Clearing Stations
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Method showing how to fill the end a Clearing station Tag, over there are two different parts. Obverse side: Section A – Admission and Section B – Disposition; reverse side: Instructions. This sign is the beforehand version M.D. Kind 53, authorized may 21, 1942 (later superseded by DA type 8-29 authorized July 12, 1944). That is essential to keep in mind that the evacuee’s name and also ASN are shown on the tag by method of an imprinting an equipment (Addressograph M70)


The major functions the the Collecting suppliers were fourfold:

Contact > to establish and also maintain contact with the medical Detachments of combat troops (in the present case, the Regimental medical Detachment – Infantry Rifle Regiment)Treat > to establish and also operate a Collecting Station, administering the treatment crucial to return boy casualties to their units, or come prepare more seriously injured casualties for further evacuation come the rearEvacuate > to relieve the clinical Detachments the casualties, moving these come the Clearing Station, or return them come dutyTransport > to move casualties to the Clearing Station

Each that the 3 (3) Collecting suppliers was responsible for the collection of all casualties from help Stations of the Division, the short-lived treatment of this casualties, and their evacuation to the Clearing Station. The Collecting Companies provided medical assistance for the particular Infantry Regiments. When Standard Operative procedures (SOP) were in effect, ONE Collecting agency usually attach the Regimental Combat Team (RCT). Occasionally an entire Collecting firm would not instantly accompany a combat team to position for battle. Part Collecting firm personnel v Ambulances and/or other transportation can remain behind through the medical Battalion till such time together they were required in the operation of their Company. Such components as stayed behind comprised a type of firm reserve, which to be temporarily under command that the medical Battalion CO until dubbed for through the Collecting firm commander. Ambulances and also personnel were on the other hand used for quick missions, such together for evacuating systems on call. Only the Collecting Companies had actually Ambulances!


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T/O 8-17, April 1, 1942, mirroring the organization of the Collecting Company, clinical Battalion, Infantry Division.


Basic personnel distribution was as adheres to (1942 data) : 2 Captains, 2 very first Lieutenants, 1 2nd Lieutenant (MAC), 14 Noncommissioned Officers, 6 Technicians, and 82 Privates very first class/Privates.Vehicles for transportation consisted (1942 data) that : 12 x ¾-Ton Ambulances, 2 x 1-Ton Cargo Trailers, 1 x 250-Gallon Water Tank Trailer, 1 x ¼-Ton Truck, 1 x ¾-Ton Command & reconnaissance Truck, 2 x 1 ½-Ton Cargo Trucks, and also 1 x 2 ½-Ton Cargo Truck.


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Illustration reflecting some the the means of transportation provided by a Collecting firm . A 3/4-Ton Weapon Carrier through 1-Ton Cargo Trailer.


Company Headquarters:The Collecting agency Headquarters included 1 Captain and 17 Enlisted Men. The Headquarters to be an administrative and a tactical organization. It provided for the control, administration, supply and mess the the separation, personal, instance Collecting Company.

Collecting station Platoon:The terminal Platoon established and operated a Collecting station for the emergency treatment of casualties being evacuated native the battlefield to the Clearing Station. The Collecting station itself was collection up in number of Departments; all casualties brought in native the field passed v the Receiving room & residential or commercial property Exchange. Depending on the severity and also nature of their injuries, casualties to be treated either at the seriously Wounded or slightly Wounded Departments. Gas Casualties, if any, to be treated at some distance from other casualties in order to prevent feasible contamination. After ~ treatment, the wounded requiring more evacuation were sent to the Forwarding & building Exchange Department, where they were climate loaded into Ambulances, while slightly wounded, fit to return to duty, were directed ago to your units.

The station Platoon consists (1942 data) that 1 Captain, 2 very first Lieutenants (both medical Officers), and 14 Enlisted personnel. For useful purposes the Platoon was split into a ‘Liaison Section’ and a ‘Collecting station Section’. Because it to be imperative because that the Collecting company to establish and maintain liaison with the help Stations, a Liaison ar was usually developed – T/O perform not however prescribe such specific duty – so it had to be improvised from trained EM, there were normally 4 liaison agents under command the a Sergeant (who typically operated the Message facility as well).


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Receiving department of a Collecting terminal in the field


Collecting Platoon:The Collecting Platoon consist of (1942 data) of 1 Officer (i.e. Second Lieutenant MAC), and also 71 Enlisted Men. For sensible reasons it was split into a ‘Litter Bearer Section’ and also an ‘Ambulance Section’. That is important to note the subsequent organization of this subsections; for instance, the ‘Litter Bearer Section’ contained 1 Sergeant, 1 Corporal, and also 40 various other Enlisted Men. The section was subdivided into two little separate groups providing 4 Litter Squads each, it should be noted, that no transport was listed as an organic part of the Litter ar – when the ‘Ambulance Section’ was commanded by 1 second Lieutenant (MAC), 1 staff Sergeant, 1 Sergeant, 1 Corporal, and also 26 various other EM. The Ambulance section operated 12 x ¾-Ton Ambulances which represented its organic way of transport (usually subdivided right into two subsections the 2 Ambulance vehicles each).

The major duty the the Litter Bearer ar was to evacuate casualties from the aid Stations to the Collecting Stations. As soon as unit clinical Sections were required to move easily in order to maintain medical support of systems to which they were attached, Litter Bearers would have to clear the battlefield the wounded in the areas abandoned through the medical Sections. Litter Relay short articles were because of this established v the aim to shorten the street of the carry and also ease the job-related of the Bearers. The hurt soldier was an initial carried by Hand Litter come a suggest on a road or trail, designated Litter Relay Post. Here, the lossc was transferred to a wheeled Litter, and the Litter squad then returned to the help Station to choose up another casualty. In the while the first casualty was required to the Collecting Station. After transferring the patient, the wheeled Litter men returned to the Relay article for another casualty.

The Ambulance ar operated Ambulances i beg your pardon were pushed by a light Truck Driver, aided by one Orderly. Casualties were ordinarily evacuated by Ambulances indigenous the Collecting station to the Clearing Station. The vehicles were regularly used for assorted missions, picking up casualties when the unit was on the march, either from Collecting write-ups or straight from the marching columns, and evacuating them to the Clearing Station. Castle could likewise transport sick and injured personnel from camp or bivouac dispensaries come Clearing Stations. Additionally they listed extra business transporting Litter Bearer Platoons to assembly areas, delivering medical supplies forward, moving messages to various other areas, and administering emergency treatment of casualties during evacuation…

The CLEARING COMPANY, medical Battalion, Infantry Division:The Clearing firm of the clinical Battalion activate Clearing train station as necessary for the sorting and also treatment of patient evacuated by the Collecting Companies. Patients were prepared at the Clearing station for additional evacuation to the rear.


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T/O 8-18, April 1, 1942, reflecting the company of the Clearing Company, medical Battalion, Infantry Division.


Primary functions of the Clearing company included:

Reception > receiving casualties carried into the Clearing station by Ambulance of the Collecting CompaniesTriage > sorting of casualties according to the nature and also severity of your injuriesTreatment > administering appropriate treatment to conserve lives, reduce suffering, and also prevent irreversible disabilityCare and also Shelter > giving temporary care and shelter that casualties until their physical problem permitted additional evacuationSlight Injured > returning slightly wounded casualties come duty through their unitsRecords > preparing appropriate medical records for the patientsDispensary > operating and running a Dispensary for treatment of personnel the the medical Battalion once the division was not involved in combatGuard > performing internal Guard Duty for the clinical Battalion, sharing this duty with the Collecting Companies

The distribution of personnel was (1942 data) as follows : 6 Captains, 6 very first Lieutenants, 13 Noncommissioned Officers, 23 Technicians, and also 84 various other Enlisted Men.

The Clearing agency was additional subdivided right into 1 agency Headquarters and 2 Clearing Platoons.


Company Headquarters:The firm Headquarters was organized to do the functions of command, administration, mess, supply, and also motor maintenance. Agency Headquarters developed their Command article at the Clearing Station. Supply Sergeant, engine Sergeant, Mechanics, Bugler, van Drivers, and straightforward medical personnel, completed the Headquarters and also remained with the CP. Headquarters walk not run their own mess however messed v the Clearing Company. When each Clearing Platoon developed a separate Clearing Station, the CP simply remained at one of them, if the remainder that the company Headquarters, such together supply and also mess personnel, were divided in between them.

The Clearing company consisted (1942 data) of 1 Captain, 1 first Lieutenant, and 22 Enlisted personnel. The Headquarters operated an administrative and also a tactical agency.Vehicles consisted of 1 x 1-Ton Cargo Trailer, 1 x 250-Gallon Water Tank Trailer, 2 x ¼-Ton Trucks, 2 x 2 ½-Ton Cargo Trucks.


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View that Receiving room of a Clearing Station, whereby Litter Squads space in operation, one of two people unloading Ambulances or removing patients from the Department


Clearing Platoon:The Clearing Platoon contained Medical and also Dental Officers, helped by a fairly large number the Technicians. It activate a Clearing station which was the critical (second echelon) element in the division medical service. The terminal was generally set up in tents or in existent an ideal buildings, and was arranged into Departments for administration and treatment of casualties. The installation had a Clearing station Office, a Receiving Department, with different sections for either seriously Wounded or slightly Wounded casualties, a Shock Section, an operating Section, a dental Department, a Gas room (if necessary), extra Wards, a Dispensary (for clinical Battalion personnel, when not in combat), a laboratory Section, a supply & storage Department, a mess Section, a Forwarding Department, and also a Morgue.

There were 2 Clearing Platoons in the Clearing Company, i m sorry were similar in organization, transportation and equipment. Every Platoon was qualified of operation a Clearing Station, so that it could operate at considerable distances from firm Headquarters. The attributes of the Clearing Platoon were mainly technical, the a skilled nature, so just a tiny amount of administrative work to be necessary.For command, administration, function, and training, each Clearing Platoon can be further subdivided into 2 different Sections, a ‘Technical Section’ and also a ‘Transportation Section’.


Normally one of the 2 Clearing Platoons remained as a to make reservation in vicinity the the Clearing Station. It could then relax or reinforce the Clearing station in operation, or it could be dispatched front or rearward to establish one more Clearing terminal for the treatment of casualties occurring from major fluctuations of the frontline. Platoons that the Clearing company were come be all set to reinforce each various other in emergencies, or leapfrog every other, according to the variety of casualties inquiry treatment, and the development of the combat troops.

Each Clearing Platoon consists (1942 data) the 5 Officers and also 49 Enlisted Men.Vehicles had 2 x 1-Ton Cargo Trailers, 1 x 250-Gallon Water Tank Trailer, 1 x ¼-Ton Truck, 3 x 2 ½-Ton Cargo Trucks.


Remark:Frequently during heavy engagements, a surgical Hospital relocated to the vicinity the the Clearing station to take over instances requiring extra surgical treatment. The benefit was the a surgical Hospital was equipped v mobile operation rooms and necessary auxiliary tools to perform significant surgical operations. It also had a number of Ambulances in order come evacuate cases requiring urgent surgery from the Clearing station to its own installations. For bureaucratic purposes, it have to be detailed that patients evacuated for therapy by a operation Hospital were taken into consideration removed from the Division, as were those evacuated by higher echelon Ambulances come Evacuation Hospitals.


Notes:Needless to add that comparable organizations, choose the army Medical Battalions, existed for various other branches that the U.S. Military. The functional company of the Cavalry division included a Medical Squadron, the (early) Motorized department had a Motorized clinical Battalion, the Armored division had one Armored medical Battalion, the Mountain division a Mountain medical Battalion, the technician Amphibian Brigade (later ESB) an Engineer Amphibian medical Battalion, and also the Airborne division an Airborne medical Company.

For those readers who room interested, right here follow part incomplete data associated to over organizations:Medical Battalion, Infantry Division, T/O 8-15, April 1, 1942– 35 Commissioned police officers & 470 Enlisted males + 101 Vehicles and Trailers.Medical Battalion, Infantry Division, T/O 8-15, July 15, 1943– 35 i was delegated Officers, 2 Warrant officers & 429 Enlisted men + 90 Vehicles and Trailers.Medical Battalion, Infantry Division, T/O 8-15, July 3, 1944– 35 i was delegated Officers, 2 Warrant officers & 407 Enlisted guys + 90 Vehicles and also Trailers.Motorized clinical Battalion, engine- Division, T/O 8-65, C-1, July 31, 1942– 36 Commissioned police officers & 484 Enlisted men + 100 Vehicles and also Trailers.Armored medical Battalion, Armored Division, T/O 8-75, March 1, 1942– 43 i was delegated Officers, 3 Warrant policemans & 456 Enlisted guys + 130 Vehicles and Trailers.Armored medical Battalion, Armored Division, T/O & E 8-75, November 21, 1944– 33 i was delegated Officers, 2 Warrant policemans & 365 Enlisted guys + 105 Vehicles and also Trailers.Mountain clinical Battalion, mountain Division, T/O 8-135, April 1, 1942– 47 Commissioned police officers & 543 Enlisted males + 69 Vehicles and Trailers + 120 pets (Horses & Mules).Airborne medical Company, Airborne Division, T/O 8-37, September 5, 1942 – 20 Commissioned officers & 195 Enlisted men + 45 Vehicles and Trailers.Airborne medical Company, Airborne Division, T/O & E 8-37T, December 16, 1944– 27 Commissioned officers & 273 Enlisted guys + 65 Vehicles and also Trailers.

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