Integration have the right to be provided to uncover areas, volumes, main points and many valuable things. The is regularly used to find the area underneath the graph that a role and the x-axis.
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The an initial rule to recognize is that integrals and also derivatives room opposites!
Here are the most valuable rules, with instances below:
|Constant||∫a dx||ax + C|
|Variable||∫x dx||x2/2 + C|
|Square||∫x2 dx||x3/3 + C|
|Reciprocal||∫(1/x) dx||ln|x| + C|
|Exponential||∫ex dx||ex + C|
|∫ax dx||ax/ln(a) + C|
|∫ln(x) dx||x ln(x) − x + C|
|Trigonometry (x in radians)||∫cos(x) dx||sin(x) + C|
|∫sin(x) dx||-cos(x) + C|
|∫sec2(x) dx||tan(x) + C|
|Multiplication by constant||∫cf(x) dx||c∫f(x) dx|
|Power preeminence (n≠−1)||∫xn dx||xn+1n+1 + C|
|Sum Rule||∫(f + g) dx||∫f dx + ∫g dx|
|Difference Rule||∫(f - g) dx||∫f dx - ∫g dx|
|Integration through Parts||See Integration through Parts|
|Substitution Rule||See Integration by Substitution|
Example: what is the integral the sin(x) ?
From the table over it is provided as gift −cos(x) + C
It is written as:
∫sin(x) dx = −cos(x) + C
Example: what is the integral that 1/x ?
From the table over it is detailed as gift ln|x| + C
It is created as:
∫(1/x) dx = ln|x| + C
The vertical bars || either next of x average absolute value, because we don"t want to give an unfavorable values to the organic logarithm function ln.
Example: What is ∫x3 dx ?
The question is questioning "what is the integral that x3 ?"
We have the right to use the power Rule, whereby n=3:
∫xn dx = xn+1n+1 + C
∫x3 dx = x44 + C
Example: What is ∫√x dx ?
√x is also x0.5
We can use the power Rule, wherein n=0.5:
∫xn dx = xn+1n+1 + C
∫x0.5 dx = x1.51.5 + C
Example: What is ∫6x2 dx ?
We can move the 6 exterior the integral:
∫6x2 dx = 6∫x2 dx
And now use the Power dominion on x2:
= 6 x33 + C
= 2x3 + C
Example: What is ∫(cos x + x) dx ?
Use the sum Rule:
∫(cos x + x) dx = ∫cos x dx + ∫x dx
Work the end the integral of each (using table above):
= sin x + x2/2 + C
Example: What is ∫(ew − 3) dw ?
Use the distinction Rule:
∫(ew − 3) dw =∫ew dw − ∫3 dw
Then work out the integral of every (using table above):
= ew − 3w + C
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Example: What is ∫(8z + 4z3 − 6z2) dz ?
Use the Sum and Difference Rule:
∫(8z + 4z3 − 6z2) dz =∫8z dz + ∫4z3 dz − ∫6z2 dz
= 8∫z dz + 4∫z3 dz − 6∫z2 dz
= 8z2/2 + 4z4/4 − 6z3/3 + C
= 4z2 + z4 − 2z3 + C
Integration by Parts
See Integration by Parts
See Integration through Substitution