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Defined

Hellenic studies focuses on the study of the old Greeks. It also studies the impact of Hellenic people on other time periods, such as the middle ages period, the Renaissance, and modern-day times. This study, however, is restricted in scope to ancient Greek civilization between 510 BCE and also 323 BCE, a duration known together "Classical Greece."


Classical greek is primarily defined as a duration where old Greece was overcame by Athens. This was due to the fact that many the the dominant scholars and writers of the duration were born in Athens, though we do have actually sources from other Greek city-states. The Hellenic duration occurs after what is recognized as the antiquated Period, the formative period of old Greece native the 8th century BCE (700's BCE) to 510 BCE. In 510 BCE, the an initial democracy was created in Athens adhering to the overthrow of the last Athenian tyrant, as result of the efforts of Cleisthenes. The resulting democracy permitted for the thriving of free-thinkers and writers, producing some that the many well-known success in art, literature, science, philosophy, and other sciences.


Hellenistic studies focus on the study of the old Greeks between 323 BCE and also 146 BCE. The difference in between the Hellenic period and classic Greece lies in the day of 323 BCE: when Alexander the an excellent died.

As a result of Alexander's campaigns, the Greek civilization was forever adjusted after his death in 323 BCE. Alexander's projects had brought the Greeks into call with a multitude of eastern cultures, and also Alexander had actually sought to combine Greek and Macedonian cultures with the societies he encountered - discouraging later on practices of "conquer and assimilate." Thus, the Hellenistic period is identified by alters in traditional ancient Greek culture as a an outcome of these contacts, and so background separates the 2 periods.

The Hellenistic duration ended when the Romans pertained to town. In between 146 BCE and also 30 BCE, the Romans overcame the Greek people piece by piece, till finally dominating the entire Mediterranean world in 30 BCE with the conquest of Egypt. Greek culture became took in by the Romans, start the "Roman Greece" duration which lasted till 330 CE. After roman inn Greece, Christianization the the European and also Mediterranean civilizations began, bring about the final decline of old Greece with 529 AD, as soon as the byzantine ruler Justinian ns closed the Neoplatonic Academy (which had actually been founded by the Greek thinker Plato).


For an ext information on the history of old Greece, Buzzbee has actually created an excellent hub.

Philosophy

The Hellenic duration witnessed the invention of philosophy. There were many individual philosophers throughout this time, every of whom had followers that regularly branched the end from the initial philosopher's train the thought. Among the most notable functions of this time is Plato's Republic, which to be the earliest systematic treatment of politics philosophy. Other philosophers encompass Aristotle and also Socrates.

The Hellenistic duration witnessed theorists who concentrated on reason quite than the search for truth. These philosophers possessed a fundamental regard for factor as the vital to addressing problems, and also they denied the possibility of attaining truth. Instead, us see thinkers revert come a dependency on confidence - agree the inability to recognize truth. The major philosophical groups of this period include the Cynics, Epicureans, Stoics, and also Skeptics. Unlike the Hellenic period, very few individual thinkers existed live independence of these institutions of thought.

Literature

The Homeric epics originated during the Hellenic period, reinforcing faith in human greatness and delighting in the beautiful aspects of life. Lyrical poetry thrived in its gentle and an individual style. Tragic tv series - such as Antigone and also Oedipus - to be the supreme achievement of the Hellenic world, integrated in countless outdoor festivals because that audiences that thousands. And also comedy, significantly those by Aristophanes, short the politeness and also subtlety of various other genres.


During the Hellenistic period, however, that all changed. Comedies became an ext akin to dramas, as evidenced in the works of Menander. Theocritus wrote pastorals that developed make-believe worlds, quite than commenting ~ above his own. And prose came to be dominated through historians, biographers, and also authors creating of utopia.


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Art

Art in the Hellenic world is what we identify as Greek arts today. The embodied exuberance, cheerful sensuality, and coarse with. Marble statues and reliefs illustrated human greatness and sensuality. A notable success is the rise in architecture of the Doric and also Ionic columns.

In the Hellenistic world, art ended up being less "art" and an ext "commodity." This change in focus led come the creation of numerous "trash" works. Sculpture that the period emphasize excessive naturalism and unashamed extravagance, fairly than the previous idyllic beauties and perfect Davids. The art of this time were supported by many wealthy patrons, who offered art for present rather than pursue it because that its own pleasure.  The design of this period also reflect the natural materialism that art, emphasizing grandeur and luxuriance.  However, some architectural accomplishments include the an initial lighthouse, the citadel that Alexandria, and the Corinthian column.


Science

The Hellenic world witnessed the bear of countless of the world's most well-known ancient scientists and also theories.  In astronomy, Thales predicted a solar eclipse.  In math, Pythagorean invented his theorem.  Aristotle engaged in metaphysics and syllogism.  It was science as we know it today: systematic examination coupled through rational inquiry, in the pursuit of the truths that the universe.  In medicine, many scientists provided philosophy fairly than science.  Most "doctors" considered that regularities divorced from supernatural causes created illness and health (i.e., God doesn't choose what friend did to your sister, so currently you're sick!).  However, this duration also experienced the achievements of Hippocrates, who is taken into consideration the "father" of modern medicine and also invented the exercise of bleeding patients to relax the toxins.


The Hellenistic world, unlike its faults in many of the other arts, actually constructed upon the structure laid through Hellenic scientists.  Considered the first Great age of science, intellectual inquiry was supported by rich patrons who aided the scientific researches to thrive.  The facets of geometry, physiology, and also Archimedes' rule of details gravity space only few of the many achievements of the period.  In medicine, success also continued: including describing the brain, determining pulse and its meaning, and determining that the arteries only contain blood.


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Religion

Religion in the Hellenic world derived native the disputes of philosophers. There were debates over the objectives of existence, which greatly led come some kind of pundit cultivation and the find for the greatest good. The ancient Greek pantheon the gods had been arisen by this time, but the nature of the pantheon left people able to question and also debate the meaning of the gods and their actions.

The Hellenistic duration witnessed some major developments in religion. Zoroastrianism emerged as among the first documented monotheistic religions, through Ahura-Mazda as the solitary god and the intercession of magi (priests) on earth. Mystery cults likewise permeated the period, stressing ecstatic mystical union and also otherworldly salvation. Mithraism, an additional monotheistic religion, additionally arose in the this time period, through the god Mithra having been born on December 24 and holding Sunday as a spiritual day. (Does Mithra sound familiar?)

Summary


 HellenicHellenistic

Time Period

510 BCE - 323 BCE

323 BCE - 146 BCE

Philosophy

Quest because that truth; individuals (Plato, Aristotle, Socrates)

Reason; groups (Cynics, Epicureans, Stoics)

Literature

Homeric Epics; lyrical poetry; comedy

Dramas; pastorals; history, biography; utopia

Art

Exuberance, sensuality; marble statues; Doric & Ionic Columns

Commodification; naturalism; extravagance; Corinthian Column

Science

Thales, Pythagorean, Aristotle, Hippocrates

Archimedes (geometry, physiology); the body

Religion

Derived from philosophers; questioning the gods

Zoroastrianism (monotheism), Ahura-Mazda, mystery cults, Mithraism


Questions & Answers

Question: exactly how did the political establishments of the Hellenistic human being differ from those of classic Greece?

Answer: The Hellenic period is significant by a turn from the classical Greecian city-states, i beg your pardon were each independent that the others, and to a more centralized government. This is because, as a an outcome of assorted wars in the 300s and also 400s BCE, most of Greece come under the control of Sparta, then Thebes, and also finally Macedonia. Alexander the good is perhaps the finest known Macedonian, and it to be his conquests that united the Greek city-states v the remainder of the human being into one empire. With realm came a huge change in politics, setup the phase for Hellenic prominence of the Mediterranean. Though Alexander to be Macedonian, he to be taught by and highly influenced by classic Greek culture, so through Alexander, the remainder of the Mediterranean world ended up being Hellenic in assorted ways. This would certainly last because that the rest of the Hellenistic period, till Rome dominated all.


Question: just how did Greek sculpture and drama readjust during the Hellenistic Era?

Answer: Like most Greek art, Hellenic sculpture readjusted from idyllic, exuberant, and also cheerful sensuality in marble statues and reliefs to more of a "commodity." Hellenistic sculpture was much more naturalistic and extravagant; v art being supplied to reflect wealth fairly than personal taste.

In the Hellenic period, drama was focused on tragedies, with standards like Antigone and Oedipus as its supreme achievements, and showcased in festivals come thousands. With the increase of the Hellenistic period, tragedy and also comedy had tendency to merge into "dramas" as confirmed by the functions of Menander and Theocritus.

Comments

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Ced Yong from Asia ~ above October 21, 2016:

Very informative! Shamefully, I constantly thought the two terms to be synonyms.

John Thompson on respectable 08, 2016:

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Tiffany (author) native USA top top April 10, 2014:

Charles, this write-up is meant simply to focus on the classic Greek boundaries ONLY, and on aspects other 보다 the timeless "social-economical-political" discussion. A discussion of the larger civilization (the non-native Hellenistic world), and also the social/economical/political would be much too in-depth for a solitary Hub. Ns aim to emphasis only on the differences before and after Alexander the Great, especially concerning the arts and sciences, together a method of presenting newcomers come the topic and also showcasing details that friend don't commonly find in textbooks.

Aisha Darwish on April 10, 2014:

At the second line the the i "Hellenistic studies":

The difference in between Hellenistic (and no Hellenic) duration and the classic Greece.....

Charles Rush top top April 09, 2014:

This article ignores the Hellenistic world outside traditional Greek boundaries. Why is over there no speak of the social-economical-political differences in between the Hellenic Greeks and the non-native Hellenistic world


Pindar's muse ~ above February 18, 2012:

Excellent definition. So numerous believe ancient Greece to be a uniform civilization yet it was multifaceted and very complex. Your post is an extremely well believed out and well written. Good to brush up on these two very different ideas.

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Anonemuss native Belmont, Massachusetts top top October 21, 2011:

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Kathy indigenous The beautiful Napa Valley, California on July 01, 2011:

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