Soap is produced by the saponification (hydrolysis) of a triglyceride(fat or oil). (See number 1.) In this procedure the triglyceride is reactedwith a solid base such as salt or potassium hydroxide to develop glyceroland fatty mountain salts. The salt that the fatty acid is called a soap.

You are watching: Draw the remaining products of the saponification of the following triacylglycerol (triglyceride):

Fatty mountain are straight-chain monocarboxylic acids. The mostcommon fatty acids variety in size from 10-20 carbons and most frequently havean even variety of carbon atoms including the carboxyl group carbon. Thecarbon-carbon binding in saturated fat acids space all single bonds, whileunsaturated fatty acids have actually one or an ext carbon-carbon double bonds intheir chains. One instance of a saturation fatty mountain is palmitic acid, CH3-(CH2)14-CO2H.Fatty acids are seldom found as free molecules in nature however are mostoften a part of a larger molecule called atriglyceride. Triglyceridesconsist that a three-membered carbon chain (glycerol backbone) with a fattyacid bonded to every of the 3 carbon atom in the glycerol backbone.The bond between the fat acid and the glycerol backbone is referred toas an ester linkage. In the saponification process the ester linkage isbroken to form glycerol and also soap.Figure 1. Saponification of a triglycerideEXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE for SYNTHESIS the SOAP
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Assembling the hot water bath
2. Rally a hot water bath by pour it until it is full an 800 mL beaker approximately3/4 full with water and also begin heater the water v a bunsen burner.3. Include three or 4 boiling chips to the water in the warm water bathto prevent the water native boiling over.
Preparing the reaction mixture
4. In a 150 mL beaker include the following ingredients. A. 15 mL that oil (or 10 g of hard shortening) B. 20 mL the 20% NaOH C. 10 mL of ethanol D. 3 boil chips (These will assist prevent the mixture indigenous boilingover while it is gift heating.)5. Note the total volume (level) in the 150 mL beaker and how numerous layersthe ingredients initially form.
Heating the reaction mixture
6. Start heating the reaction mixture by clamping the beaker and also contentsin the hot water bath. Heat the mixture for about 25 minute afterthe water concerns a sluggish boil. The 150 mL beaker have to be clamped sothat the reaction mixture is listed below the level the the water in the waterbath. Keep the water level in the water bathtub by adding water together needed.7. Utilizing a stirring rod, line the reaction mixture frequently so thatit does not boil over.8. Keep the complete volume the the reaction mixture by including smallquantities that 1:1 (volume/volume) ethanol-deionized water.9. After ~ the early 25 minute heating there should be no separationof layers in the beaker.
Testing the reaction mixture
10. Check the reaction mixture to identify if the saponification processis complete by carefully placing a couple of drops the the reaction mixture ina 6-inch check tube. Add 10 mL that cold water. If fat droplets form, add5 mL that the 20% NaOH and 5 mL of ethanol come the beaker and also continue toheat for secondary 10 minutes, or till no fat droplets kind upon testing.
Isolating the soap CAUTION: remember thatthe beaker and clamp room hot!
11. When the saponification process is complete, rotate the bunsen burneroff, add 25 mL that deionized water come the beaker and place the beaker onthe bench optimal to cool for around 5-6 minutes. Then place the soap reactionbeaker into an ice bath and cool for around 10 minutes.12. At this point, measure out about 50 mL of saturated NaCl solutionand cool it additionally for around 5-6 minutes in the ice cream bath.

13. ~ the cooling time is complete for the soap reaction mixture,decant any type of liquid from the beaker. (Be careful not to pour off the soap.)

14. Following add, add the 50 mL cold, saturated NaCl solution to the soap beakerand stir extensively with a glass rod. This procedure separates the soap indigenous glycerol and also excess base and also is dubbed "salting out."15. Collection the solid soap, utilizing a Buchner funnel. 16. When the air is being attracted over the soap in the funnel, wash thesoap with two 20 mL quantities of ice cold deionized water. Proceed to drawair end the soap for another 3 minutes.
Analyzing the soap
17. Fill four, 6-inch test tubes one-third full with deionized water. Placea tiny amount of the soap in every test tube and mix the soap and waterwell. A. Test the pH that the an initial tube by dipping a clean stirring pole intothe solution and touching the systems to both red and blue litmus paper.Record your monitorings on the Data Sheet. B. In the second test tube add several fall of calcium chloride solution.Record your observations. C. In the third test tube add several autumn of iron(III) chloride solution.Record her observations. D. In the fourth test tube add a single drop the kerosene and also shake thesolution. Record your observations.18. Pour the materials of the 4 test tubes right into the designated wastecontainer.
Soap disposal
19. Ar the soap in the designated container.20. Extensively rinse every one of the glassware v water before storing.

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brickandmortarphilly.comISTRY 122: DATA SHEETFOR synthetic OF SOAP
Name __________________________Hood No. _________________Date _________________
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Red Litmus Paper
Blue Litmus Paper
What explanation can you provide for the observed shade changesof the litmus paper?
Calcium chloride test
Iron(III) chloride test
Kerosene test