Chemical compounds may be classified follow to several various criteria. One common an approach is based upon the specific elements present. Because that example, oxides save one or more oxygen atoms, hydrides contain one or an ext hydrogen atoms, and also halides save on computer one or an ext halogen (Group 17) atoms. Essential compounds are characterized as those compounds v a backbone the carbon atoms, and all the remaining compounds room classified as inorganic. Together the surname suggests, organometallic compounds are organic compounds external inspection to metal atoms.
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Types of chemical Reactions
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A third classification system is based upon reactivity—specifically, the species of chemical reactions that the link are likely to undergo. Because that example, acids are compounds that develop H+ ion (protons) when liquified in water to create aqueous solutions. Thus, mountain are characterized as proton donors. The most usual acids room aqueous remedies of HCl (hydrochloric acid), H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), HNO3 (nitric acid), and also H3PO4 (phosphoric acid). Bases, ~ above the various other hand, are proton acceptors. The most usual base is the hydroxide ion (OH−), i m sorry reacts through an H+ ion to type a water molecule. H+ + OH− → HOH (usually composed H2O)
Oxidation-reduction reactions constitute one more important course of chemical reactions. Oxidation involves a ns of electrons, whereas reduction entails a gain of electrons. For example, in the reaction in between sodium metal and also chlorine gas to type sodium chloride, 2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl, electrons (e−) are transferred from salt atoms come chlorine atoms to kind Na+ and Cl− ions in the reaction product, sodium chloride.
The result covalent bond is offered a special name because one entity (the ligand) furnishes both of the electrons that room subsequently mutual in the bond. An instance of a coordination compound is
In the early on days the the science of chemistry, there was no systematic method to specify name compounds. Chemistry coined names such together sugar that lead, quicklime, milk of magnesia, Epsom salts (see magnesium), and laughing gas to define familiar compounds. Such names are called common or trivial names. As chemistry advanced, the became apparent that, if typical names were supplied for all known compounds, i m sorry number in the millions, great confusion would result. It plainly would be impossible to memorize trivial names for such a large number the compounds. Therefore a methodical nomenclature (naming process) has been developed. There are, however, details familiar compounds the are constantly referred to by their usual names. The systematic names for H2O and NH3, for example, are never used; these critical compounds are well-known only as water and ammonia, respectively.
The most basic chemical compounds room binary compounds—those consist of of two elements. Different rules use for the nomenclature of binary ionic compounds and also binary molecular (covalent) compounds, and also so they will certainly be thought about separately.
Binary ionic compounds
The nomenclature for binary ionic compound simply involves naming the ions according to the adhering to rules:
The following examples illustrate the nomenclature rules for binary ionic compounds:
|NaCl||Na+, Cl−||sodium chloride|
|KI||K+, I−||potassium iodide|
|CaS||Ca2+, S2−||calcium sulfide|
|CsBr||Cs+, Br−||cesium bromide|
|MgO||Mg2−, O2−||magnesium oxide|
In the formulas of ionic compounds, straightforward ions are stood for by the chemical symbol because that the element: Cl method Cl−, Na method Na+, and also so on. When individual ions are shown, however, the fee is constantly included. Thus, the formula the potassium bromide is provided as KBr, but, as soon as the potassium and also bromide ion are shown individually, they are written K+ and also Br−.
When a provided metal atom can kind more 보다 one kind of cation, the charge on the certain cation current must be mentioned in the name of the compound. For example, lead (Pb) can exist together Pb2+ or Pb4+ ions in ionic compounds. Also, steel (Fe) can kind Fe2+ or Fe3+ ions, tin (Sn) can kind Sn2+ or Sn4+ ions, yellow (Au) can form Au+ or Au3+ ions, and also so on. Therefore, the names of binary compounds containing steels such as these must include a Roman numeral to specify the fee on the ion. For example, the compound FeCl3, which includes Fe3+, is named iron(III) chloride. Top top the other hand, the link FeCl2, which includes Fe2+, is designated together iron(II) chloride. In each case, the Roman character in the name specifies the charge of the steel ion present.
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An alternative system because that naming link containing metals that form only 2 ions is occasionally seen, especially in enlarge literature. The ion through the higher charge has a name finishing in -ic, and the one with the reduced charge has actually the suffix -ous. Because that example, Fe3+ is dubbed the ferric ion, and Fe2+ is called the ferrous ion. The names for FeCl3 and also FeCl2 are then ferric chloride and also ferrous chloride, respectively.
|*Mercury(I) ions always occur bound together to form Hg22+.|