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The unified States supplies a mix of energy sources
The United says uses and also produces many different varieties and sources of energy, which have the right to be grouped into basic categories such as primary and secondary, renewable and also nonrenewable, and also fossil fuels.
Primary energy sources incorporate fossil fuel (petroleum, herbal gas, and also coal), nuclear energy, and renewable sources of energy. Electrical power is a second energy resource that is created (produced) indigenous primary energy sources.
Energy sources are measure in various physical units: fluid fuels in barrels or gallons, herbal gas in cubic feet, charcoal in quick tons, and electricity in kilowatts and kilowatthours. In the unified States, british thermal devices (Btu), a measure of warmth energy, is typically used because that comparing different varieties of energy to every other. In 2020, total U.S. Main energy intake was equal to about 92,943,042,000,000,000 Btu, or around 93 quadrillion Btu.
Download imageU.S. Primary energy consumption by power source, 2020total = 92.94 quadrillionBritish thermal units (Btu)total = 11.59 quadrillion Btu2% - geothermal11% - solar26% - wind4% - biomass waste17% - biofuels18% - wood22% - hydroelectricbiomass39%renewableenergy 12%naturalgas34%petroleum35%nuclearelectricpower9%coal10%
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Monthly energy Review, Table 1.3 and also 10.1,April 2021, preliminary dataNote: amount of components may not equal 100% because of live independence rounding.
electric power35.74quadstransportation24.23quadsindustrial22.10quadsresidential6.54quadscommercial4.32quadsIn 2020, the electrical power sector accounting for about 96% of full U.S. Utility-scale power generation, nearly all of which was offered to the various other sectors.1
The transportation, industrial, commercial, and also residential sectors are dubbed end-use sectors because they consume primary energy and electricity developed by the electric power sector.Primary energy use add to the energy content of electrical energy purchased native the electric power sector by every end-use sector in 2020 was:industrial25.24quadstransportation24.25quadsresidential11.53quadscommercial8.67quads
Total energy usage by the end-use sectors has their primary power use, purchase electricity, and electrical system power losses (energy conversion and also other losses connected with the generation, transmission, and distribution of purchased electricity) and also other energy losses.
The resources of energy used by each sector differ widely. For example, in 2020, petroleum noted approximately 90% the the transportation sector"s energy consumption, but only 1% of the electric power sector"s primary energy use. The chart below shows the species and quantities of primary power sources spend in the joined States, the quantities of primary power used by the electrical power sector and the power end-use sectors, and the sleeve sales of electrical energy by the electric power ar to the power end-use sectors.
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The chart listed below shows yearly primary energy intake from 1950 through 2020.
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Domestic energy production was higher than U.S. Energy intake in 2019 and 2020
After record-high U.S. Energy production and consumption in 2018, power production flourished by nearly 6% in 2019 if energy intake decreased by around 1%, with production exceeding usage on an yearly basis for the an initial time due to the fact that 1957. Complete energy production decreased by about 5% in 2020 but was still around 3% better than consumption: manufacturing equaled 95.75 quads and also consumption equaled 92.94 quads.
Fossil fuels—petroleum, natural gas, and also coal—accounted for around 79% of total U.S. Primary power production in 2020.The percentage shares and quantities (in quads) of complete U.S. Primary power production by significant sources in 2020 were:
The mix the U.S. Energy consumption and also production has adjusted over time
Fossil fuel have dominated the U.S. Energy mix for an ext than 100 years, however the mix has changed over time.
Coal intake in the United says peaked in 2007 at about 1.13 billion short tons and also coal manufacturing peaked in 2008 at about 1.17 billion brief tons. Both declined in virtually every year since those optimal years mainly since of less U.S. Coal need for electricity generation. In regards to the complete energy contents of coal, yearly U.S. Coal intake peaked in 2005 at around 22.80 quads and production peaked in 1998 at around 24.0 quads. The power content that total yearly coal consumption and also production normally declined due to the fact that those years since of decreases in demand for coal, and also because of boosts in the re-superstructure of lower warmth content coal use by the electric power sector. In 2020, coal intake was around 477 million brief tons, same to about 9.18 quads and also the lowest percentage share of total U.S. Energy consumption due to the fact that at the very least 1949. Coal manufacturing in 2020 was 534 million brief tons—the lowest amount because 1965—and equal to about 10.69 quads.
Natural gas manufacturing (dry gas) got to a document high the 33.97 sunshine cubic feet (Tcf) or 93.06 billion cubic feet every day (Bcf/day) in 2019. Dry natural gas manufacturing was around 2% lower in 2020 at about 33.44 Tcf (91.36 Bcf/day) and also equal to around 34.68 quads. Natural gas usage in 2020 was about 83.28 Bcf/day, equal to 31.54 quads and 34% of full U.S. Power consumption. U.S. Annual dry herbal gas production has exceeded U.S. Annual natural gas intake in both volume and heat content due to the fact that 2017. An ext efficient drilling and production techniques have resulted in rises in organic gas production from shale and tight geologic formations. The production increases contributed to a decline in organic gas prices, which subsequently has added to rises in organic gas usage by the electric power and also industrial sectors.
Annual crude oil oil production usually decreased between 1970 and 2008. In 2009, the tendency reversed and production started to rise, and in 2019, U.S. Crude oil manufacturing reached a document high the 12.25 million barrels per day. Much more cost-effective drilling and production technologies helped to journey the manufacturing increases, specifically in Texas and North Dakota. U.S. Crude oil oil production decreased to about 11.31 million barrels per day in 2020. A big drop in U.S. Petroleum demand in March and April 2020 as a an outcome of the an answer to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a decrease in U.S. Oil production.
Natural gas tree liquids (NGPLs) room extracted from natural gas before the organic gas is put right into pipelines for infection to consumers. Yearly NGPLs manufacturing has typically increased since 2005, coinciding with rises in herbal gas production, and reached a record high of 5.16 million barrels every day in 2020. NGPLs room the largest source of U.S. Hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs) production. Yearly increases in HGLs production since 2008 have added to lower HGLs prices and also to boosted U.S. HGLs intake (and exports).
Nuclear power production in advertising nuclear power plants in the joined States began in 1957, grew annually through 1990, and also generally leveled off after 2000. Even though there to be fewer operation nuclear reactors in 2020 보다 in 2000, the quantity of nuclear energy production in 2020 was 790 billion kilowatthours (kWh)—or 8.25 quads—the second-highest on document behind 2019. A combination of increased capacity from power plant upgrades and shorter refueling and also maintenance cycles have actually helped come compensate because that reductions in the numbers of nuclear reactors and maintain a reasonably consistent level of annual U.S. Nuclear electrical power generation because that the previous 20 years.
Renewable energy production and also consumption both reached record highs of around 11.77 and 11.59 quads, respectively, in 2020, driven mostly by record-high solar and also wind energy production. Hydroelectric power production in 2020 was around 1% greater than in 2019 but about 9% lower than the 50-year average. Total biomass production and consumption in 2020 to be both 10% lower than highest levels tape-recorded in 2018. Geothermal energy use in 2020 was practically the very same as the highest yearly level that geothermal power production and also consumption recorded in 2014.
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1Utility-scale electricity generation consists of generation from strength plants through at least one megawatt of electric generation capacity. The industrial and also commercial sectors produced around 4% of utility-scale electrical energy generation in 2020. Over there are approximates for spread (small-scale) solar electricity generation in Monthly power Review Table 10.6. A little amount of electricity is imported from and also exported to Canada and Mexico.